Pharmacology and Toxicology
Mechanisms and Linkage of Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and Inflammation

khalil Amjad Hadid; Fawaz A. Alassaf; Mohammed Najim Abed

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 1-8

  Background: Chronic inflammation is responsible for low insulin sensitivity, making obesity a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines activates several signaling pathways, consequently leading ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Evaluation of the Expression of Immunohistochemical Staining of PDL1 in Renal Cell Cancer

Rihab Mohammed Edress Al-Nuaimy; Nadwa SM. Al-Azzo

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 9-14

  Background and objectives: To evade anti-tumour responses, tumour cells expressed programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), which play a role in suppressing the adaptive arm of immune systems. It has been disputed, meanwhile, whether PDL1 expression in Renal cell cancer (RCC) has any predictive value. Anti-PDL1 ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Evaluate the Fluctuation in the Level of PTH, and Assess the Relationship Between PTH and Some Biochemical Parameter in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

Zahraa H. Alsarraf; Nahla A. Saber

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 15-19

  Background: As a key regulator of bone metabolism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) also modulates the homeostatic response to changes in plasma calcium concentrations. PTH values are often used in patients with “chronic kidney disease (CKD)” as a surrogate for assessing bone and mineral disease ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Comprehensive View on Drugs-Induced Cardiotoxicity and Its Prevention

Abdulnaser Ahmad Ali; Musab Mohammed Khalaf; Abdulla A. Ahmad

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 20-35

  Background: The prevention of drug-induced cardiotoxicity is a complicated challenge facing healthcare providers during the last few decades. This challenge is raised from the unclear definition of the term “cardiotoxicity”, the overlapping of the symptoms of heart dysfunction due to the ...  Read More ...

Clinical Pharmacy
Smoking Behaviors and Related Factors Among Secondary School Students in Duhok City

Alaa Noori Sarkees; Sardar Abdullah Issa

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 36-44

  Background: The use of tobacco products among adolescents is a global health concern with reduced available information about the driving cause enhancing smoking in school-age adolescents and the synchronised role of friends, school, and parents in initiating the adolescent quitting. Aim: This study ...  Read More ...