Pharmacology and Toxicology
Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity: An Update Regarding the Mechanism of Toxicity and Mitigation Strategies of Bee Propolis

Hodhaifa Abdul Mohsin; Mohannad E Qazzaz; Mohanad Alfahad

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 72-78

  Introduction: Doxorubicin (Dox.) is a very effective antineoplastic agent for treating various tumours. It produces an anti-cancer mechanism through the intercalation of DNA and reducing topoisomerase II enzyme activity in fast-proliferating cancers. However, Dox. is associated with limited-use adverse ...  Read More ...

Pharmaceutics & Industrial Pharmacy
Scanning Sildenafil Citrate Solubility in Hydrotropic Solutions

Ebtissam Ameer Al-dulaimi; Mohanad Alfahad; Mohannad Emad Qazzaz

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 79-82

  Background: Sildenafil citrate (SC) is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor with low aqueous solubility (4.1 mg/mL in water), resulting in only 40% bioavailability after oral administration. SC is classified as class II by the Biopharmaceutical Drug Classification System. Hydrotropic agents are ...  Read More ...

Clinical Pharmacy
Is Nefopam Effective in Treating Acute Renal Colic? A Narrative Review

Zainab Mohammed Al-Shammaa; Mohammed Ibrahim Aladul; Ashraf Ibrahim Aldool; Rima A Hijazeen

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 83-89

  AbstractBackground: Acute renal colic is a severe and sudden form of loin pain that usually radiates from the flank towards the groin. Acute renal colic is one of the common causes of emergency department admission worldwide. Nefopam has a unique analgesic effect, that differs pharmacologically from ...  Read More ...

Clinical Pharmacy
COVID-19 and Hand Hygiene: Has the Pandemic Heightened Mothers’ Awareness in Quetta City, Pakistan?

Sameera Mohammad; Qaiser Iqbal; Harith Al-Qazaz; Sajjad Haider; Sadeel Shanshal; Fahad Saleem

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 90-98

  Background: Supported by evidence-based literature, hand hygiene (HH) is one of the cost-effective and simple preventive measures against COVID-19. The phenomenon is least reported in the developing world. Methods: We therefore were interested in assessing whether the COVID-19 had influenced knowledge ...  Read More ...

Pharmaceutical Chemistry
The Influence of Dioxolane Ring Conjugates on Biological Activities: A Review Study

Moath Kahtan Bashir; Mahmood Khudhayer Oglah; Yasser Fakri Mustafa; Ahmed Abdul-jabbar Mahmood

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 99-110

  Background: The problem of drug side effects necessitates the design, synthesis, and development of novel therapeutic agents that possess high activity with minimal side effects. According to the structure-activity relationship, the dioxolane moiety is found in many natural therapeutic agents and plays ...  Read More ...

Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Thionyl Chloride: A Catalyst of Synthetic Chemical Interest

Noor Ahmed Waheed; Noora Thamer Abdulaziz; Sawsan Hasan Hammodi; Yasser Fakri Mustafa

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 111-125

  Background: Particularly developed ingredients that are easily manufactured and utilized for additional exploitation are used in organic synthetic chemistry. Thionyl chloride serves as a significant illustration of such an ingredient. The usefulness of which has been discussed in a huge number of peer-reviewed ...  Read More ...

Clinical Pharmacy
Bacterial Profile and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Uropathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Quetta City, Pakistan

Palwasha Khan Kakar; Fahad Saleem; Qaiser Iqbal; Sajjad Haider; Harith Al-Qazaz; Sadeel Shanshal

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 126-132

  Background: Irrational use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance against uropathogens is a global catastrophe. Consequently, it is necessary to identify the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens while managing Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). Also, recognizing the susceptibility pattern ...  Read More ...

Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Coumarin-Based Derivatives: A Review of Their Synthetic Routes, Reactivity, and Biomedical Attributes

Rana Naeem Jibroo; Yasser Fakri Mustafa; Wejdan Al-Shakarchi

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 133-151

  Background: Coumarin-based derivatives (Cou-Ds) are one of the most important types of heterocycles, with a wide range of uses in synthetic and medicinal chemistry. Cou-Ds have interested researchers due to their wide range of biomedical potential and application as valuable synthetic scaffolds, which ...  Read More ...

Pharmacognosy & Natural Products
Bell Pepper Biowaste Products as Medicinally Valuable Nutraceuticals: A Comprehensive Review

Areej Hazem Alyamoor; Yasser Fakri Mustafa

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 152-167

  Background: The numerous additional valued substances present within plant biowaste products have a wide range of candidates regarding their recycling, promoting the idea of the circular economy. The bell pepper (BP, Capsicum annum L.) has high concentrations of various vitamins and minerals. Also, the ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Therapeutic Potential of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate as a DYRK1A Inhibitor in Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Doaa Khalid Ibrahim; Nooralhuda Akram Yahya

Volume 20, Issue 2 , December 2023, Page 168-173

  Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic high blood sugar levels due to impaired insulin secretion or action. Existing diabetic medications have limitations, including high costs and the risk of hypoglycemia. Aim: To overcome these challenges, researchers ...  Read More ...