Volume 17, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2020, Page 1-125

Quality of different brands of metronidazole available in jimma town, south west Ethiopia; A cross- sectional pharmaceutical quality study

Teshome Sosengo; Tesfaye Mohammed; Ramanjireddy Tatiparthi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167595

Background: WHO report of 2017 estimates that the rates of substandard and falsified medical products in low- and middle-income countries is approximately 10.5% with an estimated spend of US$ 30.5 billion.
Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of different brands of metronidazole available in Jimma town, Oromia region, South West Ethiopia.
Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma town, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The study was conducted from May 03 – July 30, 2018. Samples were collected using convenience sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using methods specified in British Pharmacopoeia 2013 and United States Pharmacopoeia 2015.
Results: All the seven brands of Metronidazole analyzed for quality passed identity test specification of BP 2013. The three brands of Metronidazole capsules passed weight uniformity and dissolution test specification of USP 2015. The seven brands of Metronidazole passed assay (i.e. drug content) test specification of USP 2015. The highest percentage of drug content, 107.81% and 105.56%, obtained for Metronidazole (generic)(capsule) and Nirmet(injection) respectively. However, statistical comparison of assay of respective brands of the respective
dosage forms at 95% confidence interval indicates that there exists significant difference in assay within and among the brands of the respective dosage forms (p<0.05). All the four brands of Metronidazole injections passed USP 2015 limit for Endotoxin, Endotoxin limit ˂0.35Eu/ml. Two brands of Metronidazole injection, Aldezol and Metris, failed sterility test from the four brands of Metronidazole injections included in the study and hence of poor quality.

Design, synthesis, and evaluation the anti-β-lactamase activity of new sulphathiazole-derived monobactam compounds

Ahmed A. J. Mahmood; Mohammed A. Al-Iraqi; Faris T. Abachi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167596

Objectives: β-Lactams are the most successful antibiotics for the management of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the bacterial production of β-lactamase that hydrolyzes the β-lactam ring can inactivate these drugs. The use of β-lactamase inhibitors like (clavulanic acid) in combination with the β-lactams may reduce this inactivation. The prevalent β-lactamase phenotype is the TEM-1 of class A released by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Methods: The docking study with TEM-1 β-lactamase lead to synthesize of new 5 monobactam compounds as the acid chloride derivatives reacted with the Schiff bases compound forming the monobactam ring. The final 5 synthesized compounds were characterized using physical and spectroscopic methods and tested biologically by evaluating their MIC values against 4 strains of β-lactamase Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results were compared with those acquired from using clavulanic acid as a co-inhibiter with amoxicillin against the tested bacteria.
Results: The results revealed that 2 synthesized compounds showed an anti β-lactamase effect resemble to that of clavulanic acid.
Conclusion: As conclusion; the β-lactamase active pocket prefers hydrophobic substituents, as the synthesized products with these groups appeared to have the highest affinity.

Formulation, evaluation and anti-microbial potential of topical Licorice root extract gel

Amina M. Al-Nima; Zahraa S. Qasim; Myasar Al-Kotaji

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 37-56
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167597

Objectives: This work aims at formulating licorice as topical gel preparation and at exploring its antimicrobial efficacy against different types of microorganisms including two types of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aerueginosa) and one type of yeast, Candida albicans (C.albicans).
Materials and Method: Different gel formulas were prepared using two different types of gelling agent Carbopol 934 and HPMC (methocel E5) with different extract concentrations. All the prepared formulas were physically and chemically characterized, and the selected formula showed good appearance and consistency, spreadability, accepted pH and physiologically compatible to the skin. The selected formula was further characterized by studying the in-vitro antimicrobial activity.
Result and Discussion : Results showed that licorice gel can be formulated successfully using Carbopol 934 as gelling agent and the selected formula exhibited good antimicrobial activity against (S.aureus) and (C.albicans), but it showed no antimicrobial activity against (P.aerueginosa). Consequently, the prepared topical gel of licorice could be considered as an efficient alternative to the common topical antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the results pointed out that the prepared licorice gel has good stability at room temperature with no significant difference (p≤0.05) after storing for four months.
Conclusion: In this work a suitable candidate of new herbal antimicrobial topical gel formulation was proposed to enter into the market.

The Histologic Effect of Baclofen in Rat’s brain: An Experimental Study

Luma I. Al-Allaf; Wahda M. Al-Neaimy

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 57-74
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167598

Background: Baclofen is the only clinically available metabotropic GABAB receptor agonist. Several reports has been discussed the efficacy of baclofen but the available data on its effect of the behavior and brains' histology are still limited.
Objectives: This work aims to assess the effects of long term exposure to baclofen (8weeks) on behavior and brains' histology in rats
Methods: Analysis of data of Twenty five healthy male Albino rats were performed. Rats weighing about 200–210 g with mean age of 65 days were randomly selected and categorized into three groups: Group 1(LD50 group): included five rats that gavaged with single dose of baclofen to test the LD50 of drug (145mg per Kg) .Group 2. (control group):included eight rats were gavaged with distilled water for 2 months. Group 3.(baclofen group): included 12 rats gavaged with 15mg/kg of baclofen (1/10th LD50) for 2 month. Behavioral Tests were conducted on all animals in group 2 and 3 including: Open-field test ,Open -field habituation task ,and object recognition(Novel) to examine the influence of drug on the cognition of rats. All animals were euthanized with ether after 24hours of last day of treatment. Brains were excised and collected from rats of group 2 and 3.Fixation of tissues was done using buffered solution of ten percent of formalin for twenty four hours with paraffin wax embedding. Sectioning and staining by hematoxylin and eosin protocol (H&E) and prepared to be examine histologically. To differentiate between the data of group 2 and 3 ,statistical analysis was performed by 1- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) .Least significant difference test with Duncan test was used . Value of P of equal or less than 0.05 means the difference is significant .
Results: This study revealed that the rats of baclofen group traveled a greater total distance(in both sessions) when compared with those of control indicating their hyperactivity. The zone specific analysis showed that the rats that were administered with baclofen consumed markedly greater time nearby the walls in the peripheral
part in the arena throughout the first and 2nd 15- min session in comparison with those of control group indicating the generalized hyperactivity and exploration. Rats of control group preferred the novel object in comparison with those of baclofen group. However there is no marked difference in the index of discrimination among rats of group 2 and 3. Histological sections of rats’ brains in group that were administered with 15mg/kg of baclofen for 2 month( baclofen group) revealed a diminished thickness in the pyramidal cells’ layer, irregular faintly stained cells with shrinkage in the some pyramidal nerve cells, dark staining cytoplasm and losing the characteristics of their nuclei.
Conclusions:Chronic administration with baclofen (15mg/kg/day/2months) induces changes in the brain histology in rats, however, baclofen has no adverse effect on the behavior. To the best of our information, our work is the 1st that focus on the influence of baclofen on both the behavior and brains' histology. Our data suggesting that baclofen may have clinical utility.

In-vitro Examination of The Potential Antibacterial Activity of Simvastatin

Hani Almukhtar; Hiyam A. Altaii; Musab M. Khalaf

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 75-92
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167599

Background: Statins are group of medicines that block mevalonate pathway by competitive inhibition of the rate limiting enzyme hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA). Statins additionally inhibit the biosynthesis of important isoprenoid intermediates which have a role in peptidoglycan synthesis and cell growth. Several in-vivo and in-vitro studies have shown that certain type of statin family possess antibacterial activity in bacteraemia and sepsis.
Method: Two gram-positive pathogenic bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus species were used for examining the antimicrobial activity of the lipophilic simvastatin using nutrient agar and nutrient broth and results were calculated by measuring the clear zone around the paper disk and compared with those obtained by the antibiotics, amoxycillin and ceftriaxone.
Results: Data have shown that simvastatin 1, 3, and 10 and 30 μM inhibited both Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus species, it exhibited inhibitory zone of (17.9 ± 0.6 mm) and (16.9 ± 0.3 mm), respectively.
Conclusion: the lipid soluble simvastatin, with relatively higher concentration than those obtained in-vivo, caused a significant inhibition of both Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and bacillus species.

A review on the antibacterial potential of cantabiline-based derivatives

Noora T. Abdulaziz; Yasser F. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 93-114
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167600

Objective: The target of this review study is to highlight the importance of cantabiline and its derived compound as antibacterial agents. Also, to take into consideration the characteristic structural features that can enhance the capability of these compounds to fight pathogenic bacteria.
Methods: The recently available reports concerning the antibacterial activity of cantabiline-derived compounds have been reviewed efficiently. The outcomes of these reports have been also analyzed to detect the proper substituents that can enhance the target activity.
Results: The hand-availability of antibacterial agents, as well as their inadvisable utilization, resulted in a mounting health problem named multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. To handle this emerging issue, the design and synthesis of agents with a powerful ability to fight such bacterial strains is becoming a pressing need.
Conclusion: This review study has concluded that cantabiline and its derived compounds may represent hopeful antibacterial agents. Also, they can address several mechanisms acquired by bacteria for resisting the currently-available antibacterial agents.

Pulmonary surfactant in COVID-19; A role in etiology and treatment

Myasar Alkotaji; Musab M. Khalaf

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 115-134
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167601

Introduction: Today, SARS-COV-2 infection represents a global threat. Dealing with this viral infection necessitates a comprehensive understanding of pathophysiology of the disease to reach to the suitable treatment. Treatment of this disease should not be restricted to the usual antiviral treatments, which suffered from several limitations including low effectiveness, development of virus-resistant mutations and the unwanted side effects.
Knowing that SARS-CoV-2 attack the machinery unit of production of surfactant in the lung, the alveolar type II cells, manifested the importance of this review article on the role of pulmonary surfactant in this disease and the possible role of pulmonary surfactant that can play in treating of COVID-19 patients.
Objective: This work tried to clarify the important role of pulmonary surfactant in lung physiology and possible immune-modulatory effect. In addition, the constituents of pulmonary surfactant and their roles against COVID-19 complications is highlighted. This article suggested that surfactant therapy may have a role in COVID-19 therapy and this can be in a form of exogenous (synthetic) surfactant administrated through endotracheal tube or through aerosolization. The pros and cons of these methods of administration have been discussed. Moreover, a possible way of stimulation of endogenous surfactant by administrating a drug that stimulates the synthesis of surfactant has been suggested.