Volume 16, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2019

The influence of Tat-derived peptide (Tat-LK15) on the uptake of membrane p- glycoproteins substrate (Calcein AM)

Myasar Alkotaji; Alain Pluen; Harmesh Aojula

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2019, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2019.165706

Introduction: Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used in many areas of drug delivery for mediating the delivery of peptides, protein, DNA, siRNA and liposomes. Additionally they have shown an ability to overcome drug resistance in cells and enhancing chemotherapeutic activity. Our group has recently designed a promising multifunctional peptide, Tat-LK15, originating from the fusion of Tat peptide (49-57) with the synthetic amphipathic (membrane lytic) peptide, LK15. To date, Tat-LK15 peptide’s effect on the cell membrane has not been assessed.
Objective: The aim of this work is to study the influence of Tat-LK15 peptide on the uptake of p-glycoproteins substrate (Calcein AM). This could explain the effect of peptide on membrane. Also this work aimed to explore whether the peptide characteristics could be exploited to improve the delivery of the cytotoxic agent, doxorubicin to doxorubicin resistant cells.
Results and discussions: Flow cytometry experiments revealed that Tat-LK15 peptide was not able to overcome multidrug resistance or to reverse the reduced uptake of Ca AM in the doxorubicin resistance sublines (HT29dx and K562dx). In contrast, Tat-LK15 peptide exhibited an inhibitory effect on the calcein fluorescence in both K562 and HT29 cell lines and their doxorubicin resistance sublines (HT29dx and K562dx). The supposed mechanism assumed that Tat-LK15 peptide may change phospholipid architecture/packing in the cell membrane leading to a reduction in the cell membrane permeability to the entry of Ca AM. Interestingly, this study indicates the possible membrane activity of Tat-LK15 peptide, which was confirmed in another work.

Investigation of some bioactive compounds in oil and ethanol extracts of ginger (Zingerbiene officlica) using GC-MS

Faris T. Abachi; Khadeeja Younus; Inas Hazim

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2019, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 22-35
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2019.165707

Objective: The molecular characterization of some bioactive compounds in ginger interest because of their various pharmacological activities.  To the best of our knowledge, we are isolate hydrocarbon (low molecular weight), alcohol, phenol, acid, ester from nonpolar (oil) and polar (ethanol) extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS] technique.
Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the oil and ethanol extracts of ginger was carried out by using a GC-MS equipment.   
Results: The GC-MS analysis has revealed the existence of different bioactive chemical compounds in the oil & ethanolic extracts of ginger. The major compounds of oil extract are beta-elemene (0.27%), curcumen (3.12%), zingerberene (10.86%) , bisabolene(3.75) , elemol(1.14%), germacrene( 0.23%) , 7-epi trans sesquisabinene (1.82%), zingerberone (35.92%), ethyl palmitate (0.53%),  pardol(3.97%).  A total of 53 compounds identified representing of total ginger oil extract. While, the major compounds of ethanolic extract are elmene (0.51%), zingerbiene (4.43%), alloaromadentrene (0.42%), curcumene(21.83%), gama cadienene(3.24%)8-epi-.gama.-eudesmol( 0.34).  A total of 50 compounds identified representing 99.98% of total ginger ethanolic extract.
Conclusion:  In this study, successful identification some of important bioactive compounds using GC-MS technique.

Management of Inguinal Hernia in Pediatric Age Group

Muataz Alani; Nehad kasim; Saad Abdulrazak; Mohammed Abdulkareem Oleiwi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2019, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 36-49
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2019.165708

Introduction: Incidence of indirect inguinal hernias in premature infants is reported to be as high as 30% with male predominance. Typically, inguinal hernia repairs are done under general anesthesia which has a high risk of post-operative complications, especially in the premature infant. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between early (neonatal) and delayed (older) inguinal hernia repair.
Method: This is a prospective study in the department of pediatric surgery in alkhansaa Teaching Hospital Mosul / Iraq during a period from Jul 2018 to Dec 2019. All children with inguinal hernia were selected for the study and divided in two groups, those below one month and those above. Surgery is performed under general anesthesia with extracanalicular approach. Post-operative complications were observed and finally decided to discharge once patient is fit for discharge on the same day.
Results: During the 18 months' period, we underwent 93 inguinal hernia repair those babies were divided into two groups, neonatal group (23 neonates) and older group (70 babies).  The gender distribution ratio is 7.8 male :1 female. The side distribution among those babies in the neonatal group were 14,6 and 3 as right, left and bilateral respectively. In the neonatal group there were 9 babies presented with incarceration two (8.6%) of them shows testicular infarction and necrosis which necessitate excision at exploration while the other one atrophied in the period of follow up. We do not record any anesthetic complications or mortality in neonatal group in our period of study.
Conclusion: Extracanalicular approach under general anesthesia is easy, safe, can be used for pediatric patients in neonatal age group with indirect inguinal hernia; with minimal complications, low recurrence rate.

Difference in the inhibitory effect of black seed extract and the commonly used drug on the intestinal parasites in the primary school students in Mosul and Tikrit cities

Maymona Yahya; Abdul_Rahman Altae

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2019, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 50-72
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2019.165709

Objectives:To detect and compare the inhibitory effect of Nigella sativa extracts and compare their effects with traditional drugs on intestinal parasites.
Materials and Methods: Stool samples were collected from 144 students of primary schools: (Al-Arqam primary school for boys, Al-hady primary school for girls, and Al-Arpachia primary school for (boys and girls) in both sexes out of 252 students of about 6-12 years old. Stools were taken from students in a clean water-proof with a tight fitting container 10 ml saline as a transport medium. Each sample was transported at 37οC and examined directly under the microscope. They were treated by different doses of different conc. of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of N. sativa and compare the effect with Metronidazole and Albendzole as traditional drugs.
Results: The results of this study revealed clear potentiality of N. sativa as a source for antiparasitic drugs and support its use in folk medicine for the treatment of intestinal infections.
Discussion:  There was an inhibitory effect of Nigella sativa on intestinal parasites being isolated but fewer than that of traditional drugs. This finding warrants necessity of further investigation of this product for folk medicine.

Antibiotic misuse and the development of bacterial resistance: Are we losing the battle?

Radhwan Al-Zidan; Ghayth Abdulrazzaq; Wejdan Al-Shakarchi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2019, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 73-84
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2019.165710

Objective: The present review targets to shed light on the crisis of developing the antibiotic resistance and specify the contemporary challenges associated with the misuse of the antibiotics.
Methods: The present challenges correlated to the development of the antibiotic resistance are distinctive and vary from the previous challenges because novel bacterial strains are continuously emerging and persist to evolve. Additionally, bacterial strains resistant to various antibiotic classes have arisen for which the use of recent antibiotics have not been reviewed thoroughly.
Results: The outcomes of antibiotic resistance are serious with morbidity and mortality incessantly on the rise. This review also underlines the feasible interventions that can be effective at the individual or micro level, as well as at the national or macro level in the prevention of antibiotic resistance.
Conclusion: To conclude, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria threatens the astonishing health gains that have been attained since the invention of the antibiotic medications.