Volume 13, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2013, Page 1-94

Measurement of serum zinc level in patients with warts, cardiovascular diseases, and leukemia

Ansam Naji Aboud Al-Hassani; Basil Mohammed Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66854

Objectives: To evaluate serum zinc (Zn) level in patients with warts, cardiovascular problems, and leukemia.
Patients and methods: One hundred eighty six patients with warts, cardiovascular problems, and leukemia; plus 30 apparently healthy volunteers were included in this study. The patients were classified according to their clinical conditions to three groups. Seventy three patients with skin warts, 78 patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and 35 patients with leukemia. Blood samples were taken from patients and controls. The blood was placed in zinc free plastic tube left for 45 minutes, then separated by centrifuge to obtain the serum. To one ml of the serum, 9 ml of 25% trichloroaceticacid were added and shaken for 10 seconds. Then the samples were put in a water bath at 37 ˚C for 10 minutes, centrifuged and the supernatant was transferred into a clean plastic tube, each sample was aspirated into atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the element was measured.

Oxidant/antioxidant status in serum of breast cancer women treated by surgical interference and chemotherapy

Imad AJ Thanoon; Khalaf R Jadoa; Faris A Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 7-12
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66857

Objectives: The study was designed to assess lipid peroxidation and oxidative defense system in patients with breast cancer, following them from the time of diagnosis through surgery and treatment. .
Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in Al-Jammhori Hospital, Mosul, Iraq. Twenty three women with breast cancer types III and IV and 22 apparently healthy women as a control group were included in this study. Blood samples (5 ml) were taken from patients and controls and analysed for serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) concentration. Blood samples were taken from patients one week before and after the operation and other blood samples were taken two weeks after the first dose of infusion with a combination therapy of cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin. The therapy was started two weeks after the surgery every 6 weeks for 6 cycles.
Results: In breast cancer women, serum MDA was significantly higher (P<0.001), whereas serum TAS was significantly lower (P<0.001), compared with those of the control group. In patients, after breast surgery, serum MDA was decreased significantly (P<0.001), while serum TAS was increased significantly (P<0.001), compared with those of the patients before operation. Chemotherapy treatment caused a significant elevation (P<0.001) in serum MDA associated with a significant reduction (P<0.001) in serum TAS, compared with the patients before and after operation and also with the control group.
Conclusion: lipid peroxidation was increased in breast cancer women, while antioxidative defense system was decreased. Surgical removal of breast cancer decreased lipid peroxidation with an increase of antioxidant defense system. Lipid peroxidarion may be a consequence of cancer disease. Chemotherapy of breast cancer increased lipid peroxidation and depressed antioxidant defense system.

Unusual yeasts isolated from immunocompromised patients

Zahraa S Kasim; Manahil M Yehia

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66861

Objectives: To identify rare fungi from saliva and urine of immunocompromised patients, and apparently healthy controls and to test the susceptibility of the rare fungi to antifungal agents.
Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty immunocompromised (cancer, diabetic) patients were enrolled in this study. The clinical specimens were collected from January-July 2011 and included saliva (120) and urine (120) samples, in addition to saliva (60) and urine (60) samples from a control group. The identification process employed direct examination, culture, biochemical tests and API-20 C system test. Susceptibility test to six antifungal agents was prepared for each isolate.
Results: Among 110 yeast isolates, only 7 (6.3%) were categorized as unusual yeasts belonging to three genera. Four isolates were Cryptococcus laurantii, one C.neoformans, one Saccharomyces cereviciae, and one isolate was Rhodotorula rubra. All the isolates have various susceptibility to antifungal agents.
Conclusion: Many opportunistic fungi are important uncommon pathogens in saliva and urine of immunocompromised patients.

Utilization of oxygen therapy in Mosul

Talal Mohammad Saeed Al-sayegh; Mohammad Khalil Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 22-27
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66865

Objectives:. To document the appropriate way of oxygen utilization therapy for patients admitted in the medical and pediatric wards and to determine whether oxygen therapy as a medicine or not.
Patients and methods: The study involved 100 patients, 11 children and 89 adults, who were receiving oxygen therapy, in different medical and pediatric wards , in Ibn-Sina Teaching Hospital. The youngest patient was 2 months and the oldest was 85 years. Mean of adult patients 56.7 ± 16.1 years while mean of infant 3.5 ±1.59 months . All patients who screened had oxygen apparatus at the bedside, physician orders for oxygen therapy, order of other medical treatment, diagnosis and clinical indication for oxygen therapy and pulse oximetry.
Results: Oxygen therapy was not indicated in 75% of the cases, and oxygen was given without supervision during administration, while most other orders of medical therapeutic drugs were written properly and given by pharmacists. Most of the adult patients suffered from respiratory (40%) or cardiac (31%) problems; the remainder (29%) have other illnesses, 8 of the children suffered from chest infection.
Conclusion: Oxygen therapy was poorly prescribed and poorly understood and paid less attention compared with other drug therapy.

Preparation, characterization and cytotoxic evaluation of novel au(iii) complexes of thioglycolate and 2-mercaptoglycolate ligands

N.A. Al-Omari; N. H.Butrus

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 28-40
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66870

Objectives: One of the main goals of the present research is to establish whether any direct correlation exists between the nature of the gold(III) S-ligands and the cytotoxic properties of these compounds.
Methods: The gold(III) complexes [Au(L)(L')n]; where L = SCH2COO-; L' = HSCH2COO- , were synthesized according to the reported procedure. The cytotoxic evaluation where done by the exposure of the synthesized compounds to HEP-2 cell line.
Results: The cytotoxic evaluation revealed that the HEP-2 cell line differ in its sensitivity toward the selected complexes compared to cisplatin.
Conclusion: Different arrangement of thioglycolate (L) and 2-mercaptoglycolate (L') ligands around Au(III) metal core may not be responsible for such different affinities toward synthesized complexes. The increase in sensitivity to gold(III) may imply that these complexes either remain in part as gold(III) species or that one of their metabolites is highly cytotoxic.

Spectrophotometric assay of metoclopramide hydrochloride in some pharmaceutical preparations via oxidation coupling reaction

Yousra M Al-Shaker

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 41-50
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66898

Objectives: A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) in both pure form and in its pharmaceutical formulations.
Materials and methods: The method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of the determined metoclopramide hydrochloride with promethazine in acidic medium (0.1 M hydrochloric acid) by N-chlorosuccinamide (NCS) to form red-violet thiazine.
Results: Water-soluble coloured product which showed maximum absorption at 610 nm with a molar absorptivity of 2.05×104 L.mol-1.cm-1. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.1-14 μg/mL. A relative standard deviation of the method was less than 0.5% and the recoveries were obtained in the range of 98-101.5 %.
Conclusion: The method does not require either temperature control or solvent extraction, the composition of the coloured product and common excipients on spectrophotometric properties were studied. The proposed method has successfully applied for the determination of metoclopramide in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The additives did not interfere in this method.

Survey study of lead exposure among lead workers in Erbil

Ansam Naji Al-Hassani

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66900

Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess lead contamination among lead workers in Erbil city.
Patients and methods: This study was carried out on male people working in printing press (30 workers), radiator repairing (26 workers), battery repairing (26 workers), and gasoline power generator (25 wokers), compared with control group (30 males).
Results: Blood lead levels significantly increased in printing press workers (P<0.05), radiator and battery repairing workers (p<0.01), while there was non-significant difference in gasoline power generator workers. A significant correlation was found between duration of exposure and blood lead level in all the above groups and there was insignificant correlation between age and blood lead levels.
Conclusion: Lead blood levels in, printing, battery, radiator repairing, and gasoline generator workers were elevated. Blood lead levels correlated with duration of lead exposure in printing, battery, and radiator workers, but not with their ages.

Iron status in metabolic syndrome

Mohammad Abdul-Gaffor AL-Kataan

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66902

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the changes in iron status in MS-individuals and to determine the effects of sex on iron status in MS individuals.
Patients and methods: Fifty individuals (30 males and 20 females) had at least 3 criteria of metabolic syndrome according to WHO criteria, and other fifty apparently healthy individuals (30 males and 20 females) considered to be control group. Fasting blood samples were taken from the patient and control groups and analysed for serum iron, ferritin, glucose and triglycerides.
Results: Serum iron, serum ferritin, glucose, triglycerides and saturation % showed significant increase in MS individuals (p < 0.05) than control individuals, while serum HDL-C showed significant decrease in MS than in control (p < 0.05). Serum ferritin showed a significant increase in male individuals with MS than in female individuals (p<0.001), while serum HDL-C showed a significant reduction in male with MS than in female with MS (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome caused significant changes in patient iron status parameters. Serum ferritin was significantly less than males.

Pattern of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of uropathogenes among pediatric patients with urinary tract infection

Ghayth M. AbdulRazzaq

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 64-76
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66906

Objectives: studying the microbiological profile by isolation of the types of bacteria that are most frequently causing UTI in pediatric patients and assessing the antibiotic resistance profile of 10 different antibiotics that are used for treatment of such infection. .
Methods: Urine samples from 900 symptomatic UTI cases attending Ibn Alatheer Teaching Hospital from May 2010 to September2011 were collected . Urinary isolates were identified by conventional methods and antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method.
Results: We identify 6 species of uropathogens responsible for UTI in pediatric patients . Females are more susceptible to the UTI than males, however they usually infected by the same bacterial species. E. coli is the most predominant uropathogen in pediatric UTI. The isolated uropathogenes showed a heavy resistance pattern toward many antibiotics like Cotrimoxazole (84.1%) Amoxicilline(72.6%), Nalidixi acid(57.4%). Cephalosporin (particularly cefotaxime) , Augmentin, gentamycine and nitrofurantoin exhibit adequate antibiotic activity against uropathogens while Ciprofloxacin and Amikacine subjected to the least resistant pattern of commonly used antibiotics.
Conclusion: E. coli is still the most common type of bacteria causing UTI in male and female pediatric patients. Pediatric urine culture isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Empirical treatment with Cotrimoxazole, Amoxicillin, or Nalidixic acid as initial drug is relatively ineffective. Cefotaxim and gentamycin can be considered as effective line for treatment of UTI . Amikacine and Ciprofloxacine are less likely to be subjected to drug resistance.

Identification and Estimation of Metoclopramide in Rat Blood by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Zena Sattam Hamad; Basil Mohammed Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 77-85
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66908

Objectives: to evaluate a rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of metoclopramide in rat serum.
Methods: The assay was performed after liquid-liquid extraction with sodium hydroxide and dichloromethane.
Results and conclusion: Chromatographic separations were performed on C18 stationary phase with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile : 1% triethyleamine (50:50,v/v) at pH (6.8). Analytes were detected at wave length of 270nm. This method was validated for specificity and linearity with a correlation coefficient, r=0.94.

The effect of metformin on ghrelin serum level in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Mohammed Nabel Mohammed; Nahla O M Tawfik

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 86-94
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66909

Objectives: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide hormone. A great deal of evidence suggests that ghrelin is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metformin on ghrelin serum level in type 2 DM patients.
Patients and methods: This case control study was carried out in Al-Wafaa medical center for diabetic and endocrine disorder patients in Mosul from October 2011 to March 2012. In this study 55 type 2 diabetic patients and 20 control healthy subjects was participated. Those patients and subjects was divided into 4 groups. Blood samples had been collected from all subjects and patients and body mass index (BMI) had been calculated for each patient. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) level and ghrelin serum level were estimated for each patient.
Results: The study shows a non significant lower mean ghrelin serum level in control diabetic group in comparison to that of control healthy group. There is significant difference in ghrelin serum level between control diabetic patients group and diabetic patients' group using metformin 1000 mg daily at P < 0.05. Ghrelin serum level has a negative correlation with ages more than 30 years old and BMI in both healthy and diabetic individuals.
Conclusion: Ghrelin serum level in diabetic patients is tends to be lower when compared with healthy subjects. Metformin increase ghrelin serum level in diabetic patients and this increment was related to the dose and duration.