Print ISSN: 1680-2594

Online ISSN: 2264-2522

Volume 11, Issue 1

Volume 11, Issue 1, Spring 2011, Page 1-95


Serum Immunoglobulins and complement subfactors levels in sodium valproate treated epileptic patients

Nazar A-K Hami; Mohammed Khalid Al-Nori; Omer AH Ahmed; Imad Abdul-Jabbar Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49568

Objectives: To assess, the serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) and
complement subfactors (C٣, C٤) in newly diagnosed epileptic patients in the pretherapy
stage and ٣ months after valproate therapy, in comparison with controls.
Methods: This study was conducted at Iben-Seena Hospital and the College of
Medicine- University of Mosul from January to December ٢٠٠٩. Forty-two newly
diagnosed epileptic patients were selected and included in this study. Fifty apparently
healthy subjects , age and sex matched to the patients group also included and taken
as a control. Initially from both the patients and controls, blood samples were taken
and assessment of sera levels of immunoglobulins and complement subfactors were
done by single radial immuno diffusion method, using commercial kits. Then patients
were put on valporate therapy for ٣ months and a blood sample were taken from the
patients and assay of the same parameters mentioned above were done using the
same technique and the same kits.
Results: There were insignificant differences between patients in pre-therapy stage
and controls with regard serum immunoglobulin levels (and complement subfactors).
Also there were insignificant differences between epileptic patients before and ٣
months after therapy with valproate .
Conclusion: valproate as an anticonvulsant have no influence on serum
immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement subfactors (C٣, C٤) after ٣
months of therapy.

Chemical and biopharmaceutical assay of different brands of frusemide tablets

Thamer A. Amar; Mahmood K. Oglah; Mus; ab M. Khalaf

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 6-12
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49573

Objective: To evaluate the chemical and biopharmaceutical equivalence of frusemide tablets
from ٥ different companies.
Methods: This study was conducted on five brands of frusemide tablets available in the
pharmacies of Mosul city from different manufacturing companies. These brands have been
evaluated using some quality control tests of uniformity of weight, hardness, disintegration
time, dissolution rate determination for the tablets.
Results: The results obtained have been discussed in some detail using monographs in the
United State Pharmacopeia (USP) and British Pharmacopeia (BP). All the brands content were
within the acceptable range of USP (٩٠-١١٠ %), the disintegration time of all the brands also
within the range of the USP and BP. . The dissolution profile also were within the acceptable
range of USP not less than ٨٠% of the labeled amount of frusemide is dissolved in ٦٠ minutes.
Conclusion: All the brands tested in this study may be used interchangeably.

The effect of carbamazepine monotherapy on full blood count in epileptic patients

Harith K M Al-kazzaz; Faris A. Ahmed; Deena K.Alsamman

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 13-17
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49576

Objectives: To assess the effect of carbamazepine on full blood count in
epileptic patients.
Patients and Methods: This study was done in the Outpatient department of Ibn–
Sina Hospital in Mosul, during the period from October ٢٠٠٤ to September ٢٠٠٥.
Epileptic patients under oral carbamazepine therapy (٢٠٠-١٢٠٠ mg/day) were
included in this study. The patients were ٤٤ males and ٢٦ females. The duration of
treatment was between ١–٣٠ years. The control subjects included ٤١ males and ٣٥
females. They were apparently healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from
patients and controls and analyzed for full blood count including hemoglobin (Hb),
mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC),
mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), red blood cell count
(RBC count), hematocrit % (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC count) and platelets.
Results: In both male and female patients, Hb was significantly lower than that in the
control group, respectively. The other measurements of full blood count, there were
no significant differences compared with the control group in both male and female,
respectively.
Conclusion: Chronic use of carbamazepine in epileptic patients is relatively safe on
full blood count. Periodical examination of full blood count is necessary for epileptic
patients under carbamazepine therapy.

In vitro inhibition of human blood cholinesterases and protection against chlorpyriphos (organophosphate) by weak anticholinesterase drugs

Ahmed A.J. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 18-29
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49579

In vitro inhibition of human plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities by the
strong cholinesterase inhibitor chlorpyriphos (organophosphate) and the weak
cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, metoclopramide, and diphenhydramine) in
different concentrations was evaluated. The protective ability of each one of the weak
cholinesterase inhibitors alone and with a combination of two of them against the
inhibitory action of chlorpyriphos was also detected. The results showed different
patterns of inhibition depending on the inhibitor and its concentration when used
alone or within a combination. When testing the protective ability, the results differed
for each one of the inhibitors and for the combinations, depending on its own ability
to bind the cholinesterase. Donepezil showed no ability to protect the enzyme against
chlorpyriphos, but caused further increase in the inhibition when used alone or in
combination. Diphenhydramine could have affinity to bind the enzyme more than
metoclopramide and donepezil when used in combination against chlorpyriphos
toxicity, and metoclopramide had higher affinity to inhibit erythrocyte cholinesterase
in combination more than diphenhydramine and donepezil . The use of weak
cholinesterase inhibitors alone or in combination may reduce the toxicity of
organophosphates depending on the inhibitor used , but still not to a significant extent.

Effects of different concentrations of aqueous green tea extract against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Dawser K. Ismael; Nada N. Al-Shawi; Farah Kais Abdul-Wahab

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 30-42
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49583

Objective: The concentration-dependent nephroprotective effects of orally-administered
aqueous green tea extract (AGTE) were studied.
Materials and Methods: Forty rats of both sexes (weighing ٢٠٠-٢٥٠g) with various
concentrations {٠.٦٢٥%, ١.٢٥% and ٢.٥% of aqueous green tea extract (AGTE)} as their
main source of drinking fluid ٧ days before and ٥ days after administration of methotrexate
(MTX). The parameters of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced
glutathione (GSH) were daily measured in kidney homogenate in addition to histopathological
examinations after killing.
Results: Analysis of data revealed significant amelioration of oxidative stress in groups
of animals treated with different concentrations of AGTE compared to MTX-treated
group as evidenced by lowering MDA contents and elevation of GSH levels in kidney
tissue homogenate but the levels still significantly different compared to controls. Furthermore,
increasing concentrations of AGTE produce no concentration-dependent improvement
of the damage induced by MTX in kidney tissue, as observed in kidney rats
sections in concentrations ٠.٦٢٥% and ٢.٥% AGTE, while improvement in renal morphological
changes was observed in group of animals treated with ١.٢٥% AGTE + MTX.
Conclusion: The concentration-dependent protective effects of AGTE against MTXinduce
kidney damage were not evidenced, where higher concentration of AGTE (٢.٥%)
used in this study resulted in deterioration in the renal functions and morphology, which
may be due to its pro-oxidant effect; while renal protective effects was evidenced in a
concentration of ١.٢٥% AGTE, an effect that could be related to its antioxidant properties
at this concentration.

Hypoglycemic, antihistaminic and diuretic effects of aqueous extract of Adiantum capillus.

Taha Mahwi; Kawa Dizaye; Gulala Qader

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 43-51
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49587

The use of plants for healing purposes predates human history and forms the origin of much
modern medicine. Many conventional drugs originate from plant sources, a century ago, most
of the few effective drugs were plant based. Adiantum capillus has long held a place in herbal
medicine systems worldwide. It is prepared traditionally as an infusion for the treatment of
respiratory and urinary disorders. The pharmacological activities of A. capillus infusion were
evaluated in this study. The result obtained on the rabbit jejunum and bronchial smooth
muscle indicated that A. capillus extract has attenuated the response to histamine, suggesting
antihistaminergic mechanism in the observed effect. The extract showed no significant effect
on the contraction of the jejunum and bronchial smooth muscle induced by pilocarpine.
Therefore the antihistamine effect of the extract was not associated with antimuscarinic
activity. A. capillus has produced a significant increase in the urine flow and urinary Na+ and
K+ excretion rate in rabbits. This effect of A. capillus act at site before the distal nephron.
The infusion of the plant produced a non significant slight reduction in the blood pressure
without affecting the heart rate of the rabbit. The hypoglycemic effect of A. capillus extract
was studied in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The extract induced a significant hypoglycemic effect
after oral administration which had similar efficacy to the hypoglycemic effects of
metformin. The maximal rate of decline in blood glucose concentrations response was
observed on the sixth day of the procedure.

Effects of combined oral contraceptive pills on thyroid function tests in Mosul City

Mohammed Daood Mahmood; Wahda B. Al-Youzbaki

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 52-58
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49590

Background: There are very little studies to determine the effects of combined oral
contraceptive pills (COCPs) on thyroid function tests in hormonal contraceptive
users at least in our locality.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of COCPs on serum level of thyroid stimulating
hormone (TSH) , free triiodothyronine (FT٣) and free tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine)
(FT٤) and in relation to the duration of their usage in Mosul City.
Design: A case control study.
Subject & Methods: This study was conducted during the period from September
٢٠٠٨ to March ٢٠٠٩. A total of ٧٨ healthy married women , age range between ١٩-٣٥
years, from those who were attending AL–Batool and AL-Khansa Family Planning
Centers in Mosul, who were taking Microgynon tablets which are one of monophasic,
second generation combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) (contain ٠.٠٣ mg of
ethinyl estradiol and ٠.١٥ mg levonorgestrel) (N=٤٨) for a period ranged between ٣
months to ٥ years and these were considered the users group. Other ٤٠ healthy
married women who did not use any hormonal contraceptives and were drawn from
the same population and matched for age, body mass index (BMI) with the users
group and they were considered as the non users groups. Blood samples (٥ml) were
obtained from COCPs users and non-user groups. The sera obtained from the blood
samples were used for the estimation of serum TSH, FT٣, FT٤ using Menividus
analytic device.
Results: This study revealed non significant differences in TSH , FT٣ and FT٤
serum levels between COCPs users and non users and no correlation
between serum TSH, FT٣ and FT٤ levels and duration of hormonal contraceptives
usage.
Conclusion: This study supported that the free thyroid hormone tests are the tests of
choice in assessing thyroid function of women taking COCPs and concluded that
COCPs can be regarded as a safe drugs in women using these types of hormonal as far
as thyroid function is concerned.

Air conditioning systems and nosocomial infections in Mosul hospitals

Manal F. Mohammed; Karam A. Al-dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49593

Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) have proven to be persistent and
sometimes complicated problem. More than one third of all nosocomial infections
possibly involve airborne transmission. The aim of this study is to estimate the types
of bacteria that could be present in air-conditioning systems of some hospitals and
their antibiotic sensitivity profile.
Materials and methods: Swab samples were taken from air-conditioning system
filters and rendered for bacterial identification and evaluation of their antibiotic
susceptibility.
Results: The results showed twenty isolates from three different hospitals. Ibn Sina
showed ١٦ isolates (٥ S. aureus; ٣ S. epidermidis; ٤ S. saprophyticus; ١ E. coli; ١
Proteus mirabilis; ١ Klebsiella pneumoniae and ١ Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Ibn Al-
Atheer hospital showed only ٢ isolates (١ S.aureus, and ١ Streptococcus) and Al-
Jumhori hospital showed only ٢ isolates (١ S. aureus, and ١ S. saprophyticus); most of
this isolates are resistant to the antibiotics used in this study.
Conclusion: there are a risky bacteria located in air conditioners especially indoor
conventional systems more than the hospital designed systems and still both represent
a susceptible source for nosocomial infection.

Phenylthiocarbamide perception in epileptic patients on carbamazepine therapy

Hilmy AS Abdul-Jabbar; Isam H.Mahmood; Sabah K AL-Dabbagh; Imad A-J Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 75-78
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49596

The present study was designed to study the taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide
among epileptic patients. A total of ٧٣ epileptic patients participated in the study. The
epileptic state of the patients was well controlled by carbamazepine therapy, with
their serum level of carbamazepine within therapeutic range. The other group
consists of ٦٢ healthy volunteers, serving as a control. Test strips impregnated with
phenylthiocarbamide have been used to identify tasters from non tasters of both
patients and control groups. The individuals who perceive phenylthiocarbamide as
bitter tasting was regarded as tasters while those describe it as tasteless were regarded
as non-tasters. The results showed no significant difference with regard perception of
phenylthiocarbamide between epileptic patients on carbamazepine therapy and
controls.

Screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip in the newborns

Mohamad Ah. Jasim; Bashar Sh. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 79-91
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49597

Background: Newborn babies are known to have risk for occurrence developmental
dysplasia of the hip so early clinical screening test is very important to detect this
problem and prevent further abnormal growth. The aim of this study is to find the rate
of occurrence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) among newborn babies
and establish good screening program.
Patients and methods: From August ٢٠٠٦ to March ٢٠٠٩ in AL-Khansaa
Maternity and Children Teaching hospitals, ٩٥٩٢ newborn babies were examined
clinically using Barlows and ortolani tests for detecting DDH.
Results: Only ١٦٢ newborn babies out of ٩٥٩٢ examined babies had DDH and it was
found more common among female and more on left side than right side. Female sex,
rural residence, first born baby breach, caesarean section positive family history,
multiple pregnancy post-mature babies, high birth weight (>٣٥٠٠ g).
Conclusion: The occurrence of neonatal DDH is still form a major problem among
newborn babies causing a lot of morbidity need to follow up to avoid further
complicating problem.

Seasonal measurement of serum total cholesterol and malondialdehyde in healthy subjects

Faris A. Ahmed; Amani Ibraheem Younis; Mohammad A Al-kataan

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 92-95
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49600

Objective: To evaluate serum total cholesterol (TC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in
healthy subjects in winter and summer seasons.
Subjects and methods: This study was conducted at the college of Pharmacy,
University of Mosul. Twenty healthy subjects, non-smokers, free from any
medication were included in this study. Five mL of blood sample from each subject
was taken in winter and other blood sample was taken from the same subject in
summer and analysed for serum TC and MDA.
Results: No significant difference was noticed between winter and summer for serum
TC (٤.٦٥±٠.٥٩ mmol/L versus ٤.٤٥±٠.٦ mmol/L). However, serum MDA in
summer (١.١٩±٠.٢ µmole/L) was significantly higher (P < ٠.٠١) than in winter
(٠.٩٦±٠.١٦ µmol/L)
Conclusion: Oxidative stress increases in hot weather. Seasonal serum lipid profile
levels depend on life style of the people and their geographical location.