ISSN: 1680-2594

Volume 9, Issue 1

Volume 9, Issue 1, Autumn 2010, Page 1-74


Effects of menopause on serum oxidant status and lipid profile in Mosul city

Bassam N. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

Objectives: To study the effect of menopause associated with estrogen deficiency on lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) with evaluation of some antioxidants like, glutathione (GSH) and its relation to lipoprotein levels in women living in Mosul City.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: The study was carried out in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul City, during the period from January 2008 to April 2008.
Patients and Methods: A total of 27 women aged 20–45 years were reported to be premenopausal and 42 women aged 45–60 years were recorded to be postmenopausal. Blood samples were collected for both groups. The assessments of serum malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), estrogen, arylesterase, calcium, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were done.
Results: There were significant increase in MDA level in women after menopause in comparison with premenopausal age. On the other hand, GSH, estrogen, arylesterase, and calcium levels were significantly decreased. In respect to lipids, total cholesterol, TG, and LDL-c, were significantly increased in opposite to HDL-c, in which was decreased significantly in postmenopausal women in relation to premenopausal subjects.
Conclusion: The increase of MDA and the decrease of antioxidants concentrations like gluthathione, estrogen and HDL-c in postmenopausal women could contribute to acceleration of the cellular oxidative damage.

Comparative evaluation of different marketed products of ciprofloxacin tablets in vitro

Mus; ab M. Khalaf; Hiyam A Al-Taii; Imad A-J Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 9-15

The contents of four ciprofloxacin tablets products available in the private pharmacies of Mosul city were measured according to the British Pharmacopoeia (BP). Some biopharmaceutical parameters such as content uniformity, disintegration, and hardness were also measured for the same products. In addition, the antibacterial activity of these four products were assessed by microbiological assay on different types of gram negative bacteria in vitro.
The results indicated that there is a little differences in the content uniformity of these products and they are within acceptable requirement of BP and United State Pharmacopoeia (USP). In the same manner, the weight variation, disintegration, and hardness were within acceptable range according to the BP and USP. The microbiological assay indicated that these different products produce approximately the same inhibition zones on the same bacterial type.
The above results may be useful to predict the bioavailability of these different products .

Evaluation of the clinical effect of melatonin on oxidative stress markers in patients with lead poisoning

Ashwaq Najeem Eldeen; Mohammed Mahmood Mohammed; Mohammad Dakhel

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 16-20

Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that can be absorbed by the body, primarily through the lungs and stomach. Generally, lead poisoning occurs slowly, resulting from the gradual accumulation of lead in bone and tissue after repeated exposure. Left untreated, lead poisoning can damage many internal organs, including the kidney and the nervous system. Recent studies have shown that lead causes oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and reducing the antioxidant defense system of cells. This suggests that antioxidants may play an important role in the treatment of lead poisoning as a kind of scavengers of free radicals.
Antioxidant is any substance that reduces oxidative damage such as that caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, is a hormone produced naturally in the pineal gland at the base of the brain.
This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of melatonin in ameliorating the oxidative stress induced due to chronic exposure to lead.
Twenty male patients with chronic lead poisoning and their 20 aged matched normal controls with an age range 35-45 years were included in this study. Treatment included 3 mg capsule of melatonin antioxidant at night for two months. Heparinized venous blood samples were collected from patients before treatment and at one and two months after treatment as well as from controls to measure erythrocytes malondialdehyde (RMDA), plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), blood lead (Pb) and serum zinc (Zn) levels.
The results of the study showed a significant antioxidant activity of melatonin in eliminating the oxidative consequences of lead exposure revealed by significant reduction in oxidative stress markers ( RMDA and Pb) with a significant increase in body antioxidant defense mechanisms(TAS and Zn).

Synthesis and kinetic studies of mutual azo prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim as models for colon targeting

Yasser Fakri Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 21-31

In this study, two mutual azo prodrugs were synthesized for colon targeting in a treatment of colonic diverticular disease. The first was synthesized by coupling sulfamethoxazole with salicylic acid; the second was synthesized by coupling one mole of trimethoprim with two moles of salicylic acid. In vitro kinetic studies of these mutual prodrugs in hydrochloric acid buffer (pH 1.2) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) were monitored. Hydrolysis of these mutual prodrugs was established in rat fecal matter. The release of 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim from these mutual prodrugs was almost complete and it followed first order kinetics. The prodrug approach to drug physico-chemical properties modification based on enzyme specifications may offer a new approach for improving drug product efficacy and reducing most of its adverse effects.

Synergistic activity of azithromycin combined with metronidazole against toxoplasmosis in experimental mice

Ziad H.Al-jader; Abdulsalam M. Al-Mukhtar

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 32-35

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of synergistic activity of azithromycin combined with metronidazole against toxoplasmosis experimentally induced in murine model.
Material & Methods: Albino mice model (balb/c mice) acutly infected with tachyzoites, were treated for 10days from day +1 postinfection with administration of azithromycin combined with metronidazol.
Results: The results showed that prolonged survival of albino mice relative to that of untreated control, and the dead mice were found only in the control group. This experiment showed that a remarkable synergistic effect on toxoplasmosis was obsereved when azithromycin was adminstratered in combination with metronidazole at cuurative dosage i.e.(250 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively. These results showed that azithromycin, which is remarkably active on toxoplasmosis, significantly potentiates the curative effect of metronidazol in the treatment. The treated mice in uncontrolled group were completely cured from toxoplasmosis as their brain were free of T. gondii cyst either microscopically or by bioassay.
Conclusion: Combined drugs of azithromycin and metronidazole showed a cure rate of 100% in experimental murine toxoplasmosis.

Serum uric acid in smokers

Bassam E Hanna; Luma M Tohala; Jamal M Hamed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 36-43

Objectives: To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid level.
Methods: The study was conducted during the period from March to June 2008 in Mosul city as a case control study.
Participants: Subjects enrolled in this study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers composed of 47 and 40 apparently healthy male volunteers respectively with the same dietary habit, no pastmedical history of diabetes mellitus , hyperuricemia and gout , renal, lung or heart diseases or drug history affecting uric acid level. Smoker group is subdivided into heavy , moderate and mild smokers.
Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done.
Results: No significant differences in the age , serum creatinine , spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between two groups where as serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers.
In smokers there are significant negative correlations of the average number of cigarette smoked/day and the duration of smoking with serum uric acid level.
Heavy , moderate and mild smokers showed no significant differences in the age , urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio , fraction excretion of uric acid , serum creatinine and serum uric acid except a significant lower serum uric acid value in the heavy smoker compared with moderate and mild smokers .
Conclusion: The significant low serum uric acid level in smokers is due to the reduction of endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress and as this reduction is proportionate with the duration and number of cigarette smoked/day and as low uric acid predispose to cardiovascular diseases as proved by other studies, therefore, its recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking with the use of serum uric acid as a routine test for follow-up as it is inexpensive , simple to reflect antioxidant level.

Prevalence of knee arthritis and role of synovial fluid aspiration in its improvement among patients with musculoskeletal brucellosis in Erbil

Khalid A.O AL- Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 44-52

The study was conducted to record the prevalence and necessity regarding joint aspiration among patients with brucella knee arthritis and its role in the process of improvement. This study was a prospective analysis of 150 patients with musculoskeletal brucellosis (M-S brucellosis) recorded in the period from May 2005-July 2008 (39 months) in Erbil governorate, which cavers population of more than one million. Out of 150 cases; 30 patients who developed knee arthritis (20%) subjected to a comparative study and analysis to determine its prevalence and characters and the role of synovial fluid aspiration in the improvement. Out of the thirty; 18 patients (60 %) were females and 12 patients (40 %) males, the age group between 20-40 years. All patients met the criteria of the diagnosis and all patients were received anti -brucella antibiotic, 15 patients subjected to aspiration of the fluid and they were compared with reminders who were not subjected to fluid aspiration.
P value was not significant in both aspirated & non aspirated group after 6th, 8th, 10th and the end of the twelve weeks. In conclusion, M-S brucellosis is common in Erbil. Brucella knee arthritis represents about 20% of musculoskeletal manifestation of Brucellosis. Serial joint aspirations of synovial fluid did not play any role in the improvement of patients. Aspiration of synovial fluid may help in the diagnosis rather than a step for treatment.

Unlicensed and off-label drug use in paediatric wards

Suhair Moayid Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 53-57

Objective: To determine the proportion of unlicensed &/or off-label prescriptions in paediatric
patients.
Patients & Methods; This prospective study of drugs administered to children in two
paediatric hospital (ib-A!theer, A!-Kanasaa hospital for pediatrics in mosul city, over 6 months
from 1st Nov. 2007 to 1st May 2008. One hundred-forty children were included in this study
aged from at birth to 6 years admitted to paediatric medical wards. Drug-licensing status of all
prescriptions given to these patients was determined.
Results: Of the 1208 prescription given to these children, more than half of all prescriptions
626 (51 ,8%) were unlicensed or off-label. Where as 582 (48.2%) licensed. The most common
category of off-label use 365 (30.2%) was related to age 217 (17.9%), the other off-label uses
were related to dose and frequency of administration 77 (6.4%), indication 55 (4.6%) and
route of administration 16 (1.3%) and the most common reason of unlicensed preparation
was the administration of preparation not licensed for use at all.
Conclusion: The use of unlicensed or off- label medicines to treat children was found to be
common in paediatric patients, this problem is Widespread in peadiatric wards &the clinical

In vitro inhibitory effects of selected anticholinesterase insecticides on human plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterases and their thermal reactivation

Omer A.H. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 58-65

The inhibitory effect of a number of locally used organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides on human plasma
and erythrocyte were examined in vitro by using the modified electrometric method for determination of
cholinesterase (ChE) activity. The negative logarithum of inhibitor concentration required for 50% inhibition
(pIC50) was estimated to range between -12.6 to 2.4 and between - 8.5 to - 0.77 for plasma and erythrocyte ChE,
respectively. Plasma ChE was more susceptible than erythrocyte ChE to effects of the insecticides. Thermal
reactivation technique was applied on plasma and erythrocyte ChE to identify and differentiate between
organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides

The prevalence of hepatitis – B and C serological markers among patients with thalassaemia in Mosul

Bashar Sh. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 66-69

Background: Thalassaemic patients are known to have higher risk of developing hepatitis B and C than normal individuals .The aim of this paper is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among thalassaemic patients and to pinpoint its association with personal medical fators in the province of Mosul.
Methods: From August 2003 to March 2004 ,626 patients under the age of 20 years with thalassaemia were surveyed and screened for hepatitis HBs Ag and anti-HC Antibody (Ab) in the Thalassaemia Center in Ibn AL-Atheer Children Hospital in Mosul .
Results: 5.59% of the patients have positive HBs Ag (1.92% have combined hepatitis B and C), 28.12% have anti HC-Ab. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C was higher in patients older than 15 years.
Conclusion: Viral hepatitis is prevalent in thalassaemic patients in Mosul. Seropositivity is significantly related to age, vaccination, family history of hepatitis, history of splenectomy; number of blood transfusion per year,and severity of thalassaemia.

Seroepidemiological study of mumps in Mosul

Tariq M. Quasim

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 70-74

Objectives: to evaluate the prevalence of mumps specific IgG antibodies in sera of different age groups and sexes of Mosul population.
Methods: 440 sera of different age groups and sexes were collected and tested by ELISA test.
Results: Seropositivity against mumps virus among different age groups was 68% (males 36% and females 32%, the difference was not significant). However, significant differences (p< 0.05) were seen among males and females at different age groups.
Conclusion: Seropositivity in age group 0-9 years which was within the introduction of MMR was the lowest. indicating that the level of immunity developed by MMR vaccine was below the herd immunity threshold.