Volume 6, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2006, Page 1-39

Azithromycin macrolids with a potent activity on chronic experimental toxopiasmosis

Sabah Saeid Mahmoud

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50532

Objective: To assess the efficacy of Azithromycin, a macrolids antibiotic, againsst experimentally
induced toxopiasmosis in marine model
Design: Experimental study.
Setting: Department of Microbiology, Nineveh College of Medicine, from October 2004 to
November 2005.
Results: The efficacy of Azithromycin against Toxoplasma gondii was examined in murine
models of infection with a moderately virulent strain. Forty white Albino mice inoculated by
mouth with 2x 10 cysts, 20 mice were treated with Azithromycin at dose of 250 mg/kg /day for
90 days. Drug treatment was initiated 30 days after infection (chronic infection). Treatment with
Azithromycin significantly enhanced survival and reduced the brain cyst burden as compared
with untreated (control) group of mice. Since 80% of treated mice were cornp>letely cured from
toxopiasmosis as their brain were free of Toxoplasma tissue cysts either microscopically or by
Conclusion: The results warrant clinical evaluation of Azithromycin in the treatment of
toxopiasmosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.

Effects of smoking on serum lipid profile in Iraqi subjects

Samir B. AI-Mukhtar; Faris A. Ahmed; Nabeel N. Fadhil

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 6-10
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50535

Objectives: (a) To compare serum lipid profile in smokers with nonsmokers. (b) To determine the magnitude of dyslipidaemia in the smoker subjects.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Al-Zahrawi Private Hospital in Mosul, from January to December 2004. Fasting blood samples were collected from 179 apparently healthy smokers who attended the Outpatient Department and 205 apparently healthy nonsmokers matched age and sex. Serum lipid profile was compared between smokers and nonsmokers. In smokers, Comparison was also done according to the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The collected data were analyzed by Chi-square, Z, ANOVA and Duncan tests.
Results: Body mass indexes (BMIs) were significantly lower in smokers than in nonsmokers (P<0.001). Serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (P<0.001) while high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was significantly lower (P<0.001) in smokers than in nonsmokers. Serum TC and LDL-C were significantly higher in smokers of long duration. Heavy smokers had low HDL-C and high TG, TC, LDL-C and VLDL-C compared with light smokers. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperLDL-cholesterolaemia and low HDL-cholesterolaemia among the studied subjects according to the recommendation of British Hyperlipidaemia Association (1998) were 25.6%, 24.5%, 26.2 % and 37.4% respectively.
Conclusion: Smoking is associated with a change in serum lipid profile. The number of cigarettes smoked per day and the duration of smoking play an important role in lipid profile change. The results document a high prevalence of dyslipidaemia among Iraqi smokers.

Effects of fluoxetine on sex hormonal levels in depressed male patients

Imad A.J Thanoon; Ashraf Hashim Ahmed; Basel Mohamed All Aljalaby

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 11-13
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50542

Objective: This study was conducted to assess the effect of fixed dose fluoxetine monotherapy in depressed male patients on serum levels of testosterone, prolactin, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol.
Subjects and methods: Twenty male patients with depression on 20 mg/day fluoxetine monotherapy and 20 apparently healthy male taken as a control group, were included in this study. Serum hormonal levels of testosterone, prolactin, FSH, LH, and estradiol were assesd in both patients on fluoxetine therapy and the control group, using special kits for each hormonal assay with the aid of Gamma Counter.
Results: There were no significant differences in levels of testosterone, prolactine, FSH, LH, and estradiol between depressed male patients on fluoxetine therapy and controls. Conclusion: Fluoxetine therapy in a dose of 20 mg/day can be considered as a safe antidepressant drug on serum levels of testosterone, prolactin, FSH, LH and estradiol.

Cardiovascular effects of vitexin isolated from Prosopis farcta

Dr. All Al-jeboory; Dr. Kawa F. Dizaye

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 14-19
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50547

Vitexin was isolated and identified from fruit of Prosopis farcta (Iraqi indigenous). Cardiovascular actions of vitexin were studied in vitro and in vivo. Vitexin produced a positive inotropic effect on isolated atrium of the rabbit which was not related to Beta 1 adrenergic receptor activation. Vitexin had no vasodilator activity nor it could reverse the vasoconstrictor responses of the isolated pulmonary artery of the rabbit to potassium chloride and phenylephrine.vitexin has produced a significant increase in urine flow and urinary sodium and potassium excretions in healthy and mild hypertensive volunteers and in rabbit. Moreover, vitexin significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure of the mild hypertensive volunteers and rabbits. This hypotensive effect of vitexin is not related to a direct vasodilatation or to blocking alpha and Beta adrenergic receptors. The most likely mechanism of action of vitexin as a hypotensive compound is through its diuretic effects.

Synthesis of ketoprofen - L- phenylalanine and Ketoprofen -y- Aminobutyric acid ethyl esters as possible prodrugs

Muthanna D.Saud; Fuad H. Al-Jawad; Adheed K. Sharrad

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 20-24
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50550

Ethyl ester HCI of the amino acids -L- phenylalanine and 7- Aminobutyric acid were synthesized through reaction of these amino acids with thionyl chloride in absolute ethanol. The amino group of these esters were allowd to react with the carboxylic acid functionality of ketoprofen (NSAID) using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as the condensing agent to form an amide linkage .These reactions were performd to synthesize the following compounds: Ketoprofen -L- phenylalanine ethyl ester, Ketoprofen - y- aminobutyric acid ethyl ester.The purity and identity of these possible prodrugs were supported by TLC, IR, and elemental microanalysis.This chemical approach to Ketoprofen physicochemical property modification based on enzyme specifications may offers a new and powerful approach for improving drug product efficacy.

The effect of metformin on some liver function tests in type 2 diabetic patients

Islam T.Q. AI-Mola; Faris A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 25-27
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50554

Objectives: To study the effect of metformin on serum glucose and some liver function tests
including serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate
aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin in type 2 diabetic patients.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: The study was carried out in Al-Waffa centre for diabetes in Mosul, during the period
from March 2004 to December 2004.
Participants: Fifty type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin were included. In addition,
two control groups were used, 50 nontreated diabetic patients and 50 apparently healthy
Results: Serum glucose in metformin treated diabetics -was lower (P<0.05) than the nontreated
diabetics; however, ALP and ALT were higher (P<0.05) in the treated diabetics. At the same
time, AST and bilirubin did not change by metformin by using Duncan test.
Conclusion: Metformin causes increase in some liver function tests. Therefore, patients treated
with metformin should be periodically examined for the liver function tests.

Preparation and anticancer evaluation of potassium-N-(P-anisole)-a-(O-Xanthetovanillin)-nitrone

Nohad A. Al-Omari

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 28-34
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50556

The new compound, "Potassium -N-(P-methoxy phenyl)-a-(O-Xanthetovanillin)- nitrone was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and molar conductance. The anticancer activity of it had been achieved by the assistance of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) USA. Here we show that vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde); a naturally occurring food component and an acknowledged antimutagen, anticlastrogen and anticarcinogen-is an inhibitor of the activity of nine types of cancer cells specially the Colon, CNS and Renal cancer

Effects of Carbamazepine on sex hormonal levels in male epileptic patients

Hani M.M.S AI-Mohtar; Imad A.J. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 35-39
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2006.50560

Objective: To assess the effects of carbamazepine monotherapy on male sex hormonal levels
(testosterone, lutenizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin and
estradiol) in epileptic male patients taking in consideration duration of therapy, daily dose and
age of the patient.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: Patients were received in the department of pharmacology, college of Medicine,
University of Mosul. Measurements of hormonal levels were done in Hospital of Nuclear
Medicine in Mosul city, from Oct 2004 to May 2005.
Patients and Methods: Forty three male epileptic patients, with certain criteria , were included
in this study , they were on carbamazepine monotherapy .. Forty apparently healthy male
subjects were also included and taken as a control group . For both patients and controls ,
assessment of serum testosterone, LH, FSH, prolactin and estradiol were done using especial
commercial kits with the aid of a Gamma Counter.
Results: This study revealed a significant increase in the serum level of estradiol in
comparsion with the controls. Other parameters (testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin) showed
no significant differences in comparison with the controls. No effect have been found for age of
patient, duration of therapy or daily dosage, on the measured parameters .
Conclusion: Carbamazepine administration is associated with significant changes in estradiol
levels with insignificant changes in testosterone, LH, FSH, and prolactin in patients on
carbamazepine medication, which may require especial attention to this point.