Volume 5, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2005, Page 1-58

Effects of zinc and allopurinol in ameliorating oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers

Dawser Khalil Ismaiel

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50249

Background: Oxidative stress has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic exposure to lead. Consequently, the potential role of using antioxidants of various types to provide protective effects became a major task in this respect.
Objective: This study was designed to explore the potential antioxidant effects of zinc and allopurinol in ameliorating the oxidation stress induced due to chronic exposure to lead.
Methods: Twenty-four male workers, chronically exposed to lead, were enrolled in the study and treated with a single daily dose of 50 mg zinc sulfate and 100 mg allopurinol for 2 months. Erythrocyte and plasma MDA, GSH; blood lead, plasma copper and zinc level were measured each month during treatment and one month later after termination of treatment. Only eighteen workers completed the study.
Results: During treatment, zinc and allopurinol significantly reduced excessive MDA production and elevated GSH level in association with decreasing blood lead level and improving the picture of the essential trace elements, copper and zinc in the plasma which were previously altered as a result of lead exposure.
Conclusion: the use of antioxidants like zinc and allopurinol successfully eliminated the oxidative consequences of lead exposure, and the treatment should be continuously maintained as long as there is exposure to lead.

The effect of carbamazepine on biochemical bone profile in epileptic patients

Deena K. Al-Samman; Faris A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 6-12
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50251

Objectives: To assess the biochemical bone profile in epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine monotherapy which include serum total calcium, phosphorus levels and alkaline phosphatase activity, and to investigate the relationship between these parameters with the age of the patients, daily dose of the drug and the duration of treatment.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: The study was carried out in the Outpatient department of Ibin-Seena Hospital in Mosul, during the period from October 2002 to March 2003.
Participants: Seventy six epileptic patients on carbamazepine therapy and 76 apparently healthy subjects as a control group.
Main outcomes measures: Serum total calcium, phosphorus levels and alkaline phosphatase activity in epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine were compared with their corresponding values in the control group by using "Z" test. The relationship between serum total calcium, phosphorus levels and alkaline phosphatase activity, with the age of the epileptic patients, daily dose or duration of treatment of carbamazepine, were also studied by using correlation coefficient.
Results: In epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine, serum total calcium was significantly lower (P<0.001) than the control group, while serum alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher (P<0.001) than the controls. At the same time, serum phosrus level was significantly higher (P<0.05) in those patients than the controls, although still within the normal range.
No correlation was found between the ages of the epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and their serum total calcium, phosphorus levels and alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the daily dose of carbamazepine for those epileptic patients and their biochemical bone profile. However, significant correlation was noticed between the duration of treatment of carbamazepine and serum calcium level (r=-0.303) and alkaline phosphatase activity (r=0.3).
Conclusion: This study encourage the use of carbamazepine for epilepsy as a sole therapy as no evidence of Anticonvulsant Osteomalacia . In addition, periodic biochemical checks for bone profile are indicated for epileptic patients.

Evaluation of anti bacterial activity of punica granatum peels extracts, on growth of gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical samples

M. Y. Bane; Hassan J. Mohammad; Hamoudi A. Hameed; Siham S. Shaokat

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50253

Thirty samples were collected from patients (10-45) years old, suffered from tonsillitis,pharyngitis, infected wounds, acne & Bronchitis.
Gram –positive bacteria were isolated from these samples, and diagnosed, of which, Staphylococcus aureus ( 50%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.66%), Streptococcus pyogenes (13.34%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10%) and Micrococcus spp (10%). Alcoholic and water extracts of the punica granatum(Pomegranate) peels as well as the dried powders were prepared, the effect of these extracts were studied against these isolates.
The antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the extracts were determined by Kirby- Bauer method and the MICs were determined. The antibacterial activity of punica granatum(Pomegranate) peels was determined. The alcoholic extract showed more potent inhibitory effect on the isolates than water extract, and the best effect was on the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis followed by Staphylococcus aureus , Micrococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The zone of inhibition was (17- 23mm) for alcoholic extract and( 12-23mm) for watery extract. The antibacterial activity of pomegranate peels extracts should make it useful for treatment of wounds, skin infections, tonsillitis and pharyngitis caused by the above bacteria.

Biochemical risk markers for ischemic heart diseases in diabetic patients

Ihsan Hassan Al-Dabbagh; Raad Yahya Al-Hamdani

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 25-32
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50256

Fasting blood samples were collected from 142 diabetics (57males, 85 females) included 10(7%) with type 1 and 132(93%) with type 2 diabetes, age ranged 10-80 with mean ± SD 51.7± 12.2 years. They were attending AL-Waffa diabetic clinic in Mosul during the period from 1st November 2003 -1st April 2004. A control group of 115 apparently healthy non-diabetic volunteers (66females,49males ) ,age ranged 10-70 with mean ± SD 35.5±12.7 years were included for comparison.
A statistical significant differences (p<0.05) were detected in fasting plasma glucose,glycated hemoglobin, serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol between diabetics and the control group. The diabetic group had a mixed hyperlipidemia. They were more obese and had higher blood pressure than control group. Hypertensive diabetics seemed to have the highest risk within the diabetics themselves as they had their total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly higher than non hypertensive diabetics. Diabetic patients with ischemic heart disease generally had longer duration of Diabetes Mellitus than those diabetics with out ischemic heart disease . Tight control of blood pressure together with optimal glycemic control is mandatory in this group.

Effect of melatonin on oxidative stress markers in patients with alopecia areata

AL- Gaff AN; Humadi S; Wohaieb S.A

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50259

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune, nonscarring, multifocal disorder of hair growth characterized by circular bald areas, which occur on any hair bearing site of the body. The exact cause of alopecia areata is unknown. Recent study reported a potential role of oxygen free radicals (OFR) in pathogenesis of alopecia areata.
This clinical study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of melatonin (3 mg every other day ) in patients with alopecia areata. This study revealed that two month treatment with melatonin antioxidant led to a decrease in the basal level of malondialdehyde (MDA) an index of lipid peroxidation, an increase in basal glutathione (GSH) content a major endogenous antioxidant in both plasma and erythrocytes and an increase in plasma total antioxidant status( TAS ) .
The most important point is the clinical significance of antioxidants in improving the hair growth response of patients with alopecia areata. This may be due to direct and/or indirect effect of melatonin on immune system. The direct effect may be through its immunoenhancing / immunostimulatory properties of melatonin.The indirect effect is the scavenging activity of this antioxidant, which in turn decrease damaging effect of oxygen free radicals (OFR) and utilization of GSH in neutralizing phagocytes- induced free radicals. So replenishment of GSH within natural killer (immune) cells strengthens the immune system and increases the rate of hair growth.

The effect of atenolol and combination of atenolol and thiazide diuretic on the lipid profile in hypertensive patients

Jawna Khalid Mamdoh; Faris A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 40-45
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50260

Objectives: To assess the effect of atenolol and combination of atenolol and diuresam (hydrochlorthiazide, 25 mg and amiloride, 5 mg) on the lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in hypertensive patients.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: The study was conducted in Outpatient department of Ibn-Senna Hospital in Mosul, during the period from December 2003 to July 2004.
Participants: Fifty hypertensive patients under atenolol therapy (100 mg/day) and 40 hypertensive patients under combination therapy of atenolol (100 mg/day) and diuresam (one tablet every other day). In addition to that, 50 stage 1 hypertensive patients without treatment served as a control group.
Mean outcome measures: lipid profile in the treated hypertensive patients were compared with those measurements in the control group by using Duncan test.
Results: In the hypertensive patients treated with atenolol, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-C and LDL-C were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those values in the control group, at the same time HDL-C did not change. The measurements of the lipid profile of the atenolol group were not significantly different from those measurements in the combination treated group of atenolol and diuresam.
Conclusion: Chronic use of atenolol or combination of atenolol and diuresam is associated with a significant increase in serum lipid profile. However, diuresam in moderate dose might not increase serum lipid profile.

Lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients in Mosul

Samir B. Al-Mukhtar

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 46-52
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50262

Objectives: (a)To examine the effects of diabetes and its duration on lipid profile. (b)To determine the prevalence of dyslipidaemia on lipid profile.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: The study was conducted in Al-Zahrawi private Hospital in Mosul from January to December 2004.
Participants: Three hundred and fifty six type 2 diabetic patients who attended outpatient department and 384 apparently healthy controls.
Main outcome measures: Plasma glucose and serum lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients were compared with controls. The collected data were analyzed by chi-square, Z, one-way ANOVA and Duncan tests.
Results: Serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and serum triglycerides (TG) were increased significantly (P<0.001); however, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic patients as compared with controls. No significant difference was noticed between males and females for lipid profile. The lipid profile was increased with advancement of disease. There was a significant difference between patients in fasting plasma glucose and fasting serum lipid concentrations according to advancement of disease in duration. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolaemia and low HDL cholestrolaemia among the studied patients according to the recommendation of British Hyperlipidaemia Association (1998) was 69.6%, 36.2%, 68.8% and 64% respectively. Duration of disease was associated with higher incidence of dyslipidaemia.
Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is associated with lipid abnormalities. Periodic check up of lipid profile is recommended for diabetic patients. There is positive relationship between duration of diabetes and lipid profile.

Ranitidine reversed the hyperaemic response in the stomach of rats exposed to immobilization stress

M.K. Shindala; S.M. A. AL-Nuimi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50264

The immobilization stress has been recently recognized to produce marked increase of gastric acid secretion and cause hyperaemia in the stomach . Since ranitidine reduced corpus mucosal blood flow in the stomach to basal levels, it may cause suppression of hyperaemia induced by immobilization stress. In this study, 5 groups of 5 rats each were used. The extent of hyperaemia in the glandular mucosa of the stomach of control rats (pretreated with saline) exposed to stress was compared with ranitidine treatment 30 minutes before onset of stress. Gastric hyperaemia elicited in the control rats, while treatment with ranitidine (20 and 40 mg/kg i.m.) 30 minutes before onset of stress, caused a dose – dependent reduction in the gastric hyperaemia response to stress. Furthermore, pretreatment with ranitidine in different doses did not suppress the increase in alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity induced by stress as well as there was no significant difference between plasma cholesterol level in all investigated groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that gastric damage produced by immobilization stress can be protected by ranitidine.