Official Journal of the College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul

Document Type : Review Paper


1 Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.

2 Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.


Objective: The present review targets to shed light on the crisis of developing the antibiotic resistance and specify the contemporary challenges associated with the misuse of the antibiotics.
Methods: The present challenges correlated to the development of the antibiotic resistance are distinctive and vary from the previous challenges because novel bacterial strains are continuously emerging and persist to evolve. Additionally, bacterial strains resistant to various antibiotic classes have arisen for which the use of recent antibiotics have not been reviewed thoroughly.
Results: The outcomes of antibiotic resistance are serious with morbidity and mortality incessantly on the rise. This review also underlines the feasible interventions that can be effective at the individual or micro level, as well as at the national or macro level in the prevention of antibiotic resistance.
Conclusion: To conclude, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria threatens the astonishing health gains that have been attained since the invention of the antibiotic medications.