Print ISSN: 1680-2594

Online ISSN: 2264-2522

Current Issue
Volume 15, Issue 1

Volume 15, Issue 1, Winter 2018, Page 1-64


Antidiabetic Prescription and Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Isam Mahmood; Raghad Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2018, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2018.164166

Objective: To detertmine the antidiabetic  treatment among individuals with type 2 diabetic  patients in Mosul city,  the number of patients who attained the glycemic target (good glycemic control) and patients who failed to attained glycemic target (poor glycemic control) and to investigate factors that may be associated with poor glycemic control.
Patients and Methods: 299 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of both sexes were participated in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the values of HbA1C: Group 1 (good glycemic control) and  group 2 (poor glycemic control). A questionnaire form was prepared to record detailed informations about each patient such as age, drugs used, education level, diabetic family history, adherence to treatment, exercise, and diet. HbA1c level was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Other parameters including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) and serum glucose concentration were measured using special kits.
Results: The antidiabetic drugs used including metformin, glibenclamide and glimepiride, used alone and in combinations including metformin plus glibenclamide and metformin plus insulin. Fifty patients (16.7%) have good glycemic control and 249 patients (83.3%) have poor glycemic control. Comparison between number of poor glycemic control of metformin and glibenclamide showed non significant difference. Comparison between poor glycemic control of metformin plus glibenclamide and metformin plus insulin showed highly significant difference. Comparison between mono-therapy and combination therapy showed highly significant difference. High proportions of poor glycemic control were obtained with ages >40 males, overweight and obese, low educational level, family history of diabetes, use of herbs, long duration of the disease, low HDL-cholesterol, high atherogenic index, non adherence to treatment, diet and exercise.
Conclusion: This study showed that high proportions of type 2 diabetic patients were on combination therapy and the high proportions of the patients were poor glycemic control. Many factors were found to be associated with poor glycemic control including age >40 males, overweight and obesity, low educational level, family history of diabetes, use of herbs, long duration of the disease, non adherence to treatment, diet, and exercise.

Histological and Histochemical Changes Induced by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on Prostate of Adult albino Rats

Waleed Kasim; Maha Al-Sammak

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2018, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 12-21
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2018.164167

Aims of the study: To evaluate the histological and histochemical changes induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the adult prostate and to correlate the changes with the levels of testosterone.
Materials and Methods: eighty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups; 3 treated and 1 control. The treated groups were received 10, 50 or 100 IU/kg BW of hCG, while the controls received normal saline. The doses were given twice weekly for 3 months via subcutaneous injections. Subsequently, on day 1, 30, 60 and 90 post therapy, blood samples and the prostate glands were obtained for evaluation.
Results: All the doses of hCG caused accumulation of secretory products within the prostate, which resulted in dilatation of the acinar lumens, reduction of the mucosal folds, and non dose dependent diminution in height of the lining epithelial cells. Moreover, foci of hyperplasic cells were observed in the prostate. The therapy increased the collagen fibers of the gland. The general distribution of the Periodic Acid-Sciff (PAS) +ve material was not altered. Most of these changes were reversible within 3 months.
Conclusions: Treatment with hCG causes accumulation of secretory products within the prostate and in turn affects the structure of the prostate.
 

Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Testis of Adult Albino Rats: A Histological and Histochemical Study

Waleed Kasim; Maha Al-Sammak

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2018, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 22-36
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2018.164168

Aims of the study: To evaluate the histopathological changes induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the adult testis and to correlate the changes with the levels of testosterone, LH and FSH, as well as to assess their reversibility.
Methods: 80 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups; 3 treated and 1 control. The treated groups were received 10, 50 or 100 IU/kg BW of hCG, while the controls received normal saline. The doses were given twice weekly for 3 months via S.C. injections. Subsequently, on day 1, 30, 60 and 90 post therapy, blood samples and the testes were obtained for evaluation.
Results: Low dose of hCG caused increase in number of germ and Sertoli cells. Contrary, higher doses decreased their population, and resulted in exfoliation of the germ cells. Furthermore, reduction in the thickness of the tubular basement membrane, congestion of the inter-tubular blood vessels and interstitial bleeding were observed in the higher dose groups. All the doses caused interstitial oedema, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of Leydig cells, as well as diminution in the collagen fibers. All these changes were reversible within 3 months.
Conclusions: Only the low doses of hCG stimulate the spermatogenesis, whereas higher doses suppress sperm production.
 

Fluorine important element in new drugs synthesis: Review Study

Ahmed Mahmood; Mohammed Al-Iraqi; Faris Abachi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2018, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2018.164169

Objective:To evaluate the role of fluorine atom in modern drug synthesis.
Methods:  Different types of fluorinated were prepared, antimicrobials, antivirals, F-NSAIDs, peptides and protein synthesis.
Results: Recent developments and future prospects of fluorine in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. The extraordinary potential of fluorine - containing biologically relevant molecules in antimicrobial or antivirial agents, or  peptide or protein chemistry, medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology, and drug discovery as well as diagnostic and therapeutic applications, was recognized by researchers who are not in the traditional fluorine chemistry field, and thus the new wave of fluorine chemistry has been rapidly expanding its biomedical frontiers.
Conclusion: This review how to list of fluorinated drugs( Antimicrobial agents , anticancer agents, Antiviral agents, and study their  physicochemical properties of fluorine drugs.
 

Anti-adhesion therapy, a promising alternative in the infections treatment

Waleed Madle; Mohammed Ajeel; Muhammad Alkataan; Akram Ajeel; Wijdan Abd-alwahab

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2018, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 46-60
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2018.164196

Objective: Antibiotic resistance (AR) represents one of the most important health problems worldwide due to the fact that it significantly lowers the number of effective antibacterial agents. Many mechanisms were studied to reduce emerge of AR, one of these is the use of Anti-adhesion Methods: keywords were used to search Most of the subject available articles. Following that, a grammatical examination was done for the vocabulary associated with the literature review. Results: Anti-adhesion agents represent vital approach to stop or treat bacterial infections. As these agents focus on bacterial virulence and pathogenicity properties (e.g. adhesion and colonization).These agents considered a perfect alternative for an antibiotic, with the infectious process inhibiting advantage in the first step to reduce the damage. These agents inhibit bacteria attachment to the surface of the host cell through interfering with the assembly of host receptor, bacteria-host cell assembly or adhesion biosynthesis. Bacterial adhesions antibodies can prevent surface epitopes required for bacteria-host cell attachment by the application of anti-adhesion strategy to decrease AR or reduce the need for the effective antibiotic doses .
Conclusions: Anti-adhesion therapy includes efforts for preventing adherence, reduces virulence, and biofilm formation. These have advantages over classical antibiotics through blocking pathogenicity without destroying bacteria and it also have a synergistic effect when applied with antibiotics