Pharmacology and Toxicology
Mechanisms and Linkage of Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and Inflammation

khalil Amjad Hadid; Fawaz A. Alassaf; Mohammed Najim Abed

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, , Page 1-8

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.144181.1065

Abstract
  Background: Chronic inflammation is responsible for low insulin sensitivity, making obesity a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines activates several signaling pathways, consequently leading ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Adipokines: The Role of Visfatin and Apelin in Cardiovascular Disease Management

Yaseen Khamees Jumaah; Zainab Haitham Fathi; Jehan Abdulwahab Mohammad

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, , Page 250-260

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.143923.1062

Abstract
  Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors are medications pivotal in cardiovascular disease management, impacting the renin-angiotensin system which plays a critical role in cardiovascular health. These inhibitors not only modulate blood pressure and fluid balance but also influence ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
The Relationship Between Eye Diseases and Toxic Thyroid Gland: A Concentrated Study

Muthanna Taha Khalaf; Ahmed Shuaib Karmoosh; Akram Ahmed Hamo; Zinah Jasim Mohammed

Volume 20, Issue 1 , June 2023, , Page 60-64

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.139757.1039

Abstract
  Background: When the thyroid gland becomes overactive or underactive, a variety of health issues may occur, including eye illnesses. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are the two primary hormones produced by the thyroid gland. These hormones are essential for maintaining of proper eye function. ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
An Overview of the Effects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors on Hematological Parameters in Diabetic Patients

Ghada M Ahmed; Mohammed N Abed; Fawaz A Alassaf

Volume 20, Issue 1 , June 2023, , Page 65-71

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.137946.1041

Abstract
  Background: Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitors (SGLT2-IS) have been shown to increase hemoglobin (Hb) levels, hematocrit, and erythrocyte count. It has also been found that these agents can potentially reduce the risk of anemia and minimize the need for erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) ...  Read More ...