Keywords : urinary tract infection

Effect of antibiotic misuse on the emergence of microbial resistance among urologic patients

Maimonah Qasim Yahya; Salah H. Azba; Maali I. Al-Hayali

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2021, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 44-56
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2021.168843

Background: The study aimed to identify the types of bacteria isolated from the urine of patients with urinary tract infections focusing on the resistant isolates then comparing the results with the types of antibiotics misused by those patients in order to suggest some measures to mitigate the increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. Material and Methods: Urine samples were collected from patients aged from 10 to 60 years old who visited Al-Jomhory Hospital in Mosul City/Nineveh Governorate during a period between February and May 2021. Bacterial culture, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against different antibiotics were performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method and the results were compared with patient medical history of antibiotic use without consulting a physician. Results: Overall, 7 different bacterial pathogens were identified, 5 gram-negative and 2 gram-positive bacteria. The majority of bacterial pathogens isolated was Escherichia coli 37.6%, followed by Klebsiella spp. 35.5%. It is worth noting that the most effective drug was quinolone (P≤ 0.05) on bacterial species with least effective was penicillins worrisome results was the isolation of a high percentage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, that was resistant to all antibiotics used in this research, by contrast, a high percentage of Enterococcus faecalis was sensitive to those antibiotics. Conclusion: The study revealed that a higher percentage of resistant bacteria were isolated in patients with a medical history of antibiotics misuse which might change drug prescribtion line in a hospitalized patients with bacterial infections.

Pattern of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of uropathogenes among pediatric patients with urinary tract infection

Ghayth M. AbdulRazzaq

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 64-76
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2013.66906

Objectives: studying the microbiological profile by isolation of the types of bacteria that are most frequently causing UTI in pediatric patients and assessing the antibiotic resistance profile of 10 different antibiotics that are used for treatment of such infection. .
Methods: Urine samples from 900 symptomatic UTI cases attending Ibn Alatheer Teaching Hospital from May 2010 to September2011 were collected . Urinary isolates were identified by conventional methods and antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method.
Results: We identify 6 species of uropathogens responsible for UTI in pediatric patients . Females are more susceptible to the UTI than males, however they usually infected by the same bacterial species. E. coli is the most predominant uropathogen in pediatric UTI. The isolated uropathogenes showed a heavy resistance pattern toward many antibiotics like Cotrimoxazole (84.1%) Amoxicilline(72.6%), Nalidixi acid(57.4%). Cephalosporin (particularly cefotaxime) , Augmentin, gentamycine and nitrofurantoin exhibit adequate antibiotic activity against uropathogens while Ciprofloxacin and Amikacine subjected to the least resistant pattern of commonly used antibiotics.
Conclusion: E. coli is still the most common type of bacteria causing UTI in male and female pediatric patients. Pediatric urine culture isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Empirical treatment with Cotrimoxazole, Amoxicillin, or Nalidixic acid as initial drug is relatively ineffective. Cefotaxim and gentamycin can be considered as effective line for treatment of UTI . Amikacine and Ciprofloxacine are less likely to be subjected to drug resistance.