Keywords : Uric Acid
The role of serum cystatin C as an early predictor for the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease in Mosul City
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy,
2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 76-78
Background: Diagnostic marker to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD) at early stages is important as early intervention can slow the loss of kidney functions. Serum cystatin C (sCysC) is said to be a superior marker for CKD compared to serum creatinine (sCr) and other known markers in the near past period to detect the mild GFR reduction between 60 and 90 ml/min/1.73m2.
Objective: To detect fordetecting the role of cystatin C as an early predictor for the assessment of chronic kidney disease patients.
Methods:Blood and urine samples from 185 patients suffering from various stages of CKD or subjects under the risk of CKD were taken from Ibn-Sina teaching hospital during the period from 15th of March 2012 to 10th of sept 2013. Serum Urea (sUr), serum uric acid (sUA), serum creatinine (sCr), serum cystatin C (sCysC), 24 hour excreted urine protein and 24 hour excreted urine creatinine where analyzed then compared to corrected creatinine clearance for each patient.
Results:Theresults showed that serum CysC started to change from abnormal border line level at stage 2 to clearly abnormal level at stage three of CKD comparing to other assessments which used sCr, sUr, sUA. The results also indicated that the urinary 24h excreted protein was starting to be observed at stage 3 of CKD.
Conclusions: The present study indicated that sCysC have the potential benefit for early detection of CKD especially in those with high risk before appearance of the symptoms and before occurrence of the complications.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy,
2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
Objective: To evaluate the effect of captopril on the serum uric acid level and renal function tests in hypertensive patients, in relation to the age and gender patients , and dose and duration of captopril use.
Patients & methods: This is a case control study conducted in the Consultatory Clinic for Internal Medicine in Ibn-Siena Teaching Hospital in Mosul/Iraq, from the 15th of October 2009 to the 15th of June 2010. A total number of 100 patients (56 males and 44 females) with mild to moderate primary hypertension, non diabetic, neither having renal diseases nor other chronic illnesses, were taken and divided into two groups: First group included 50 patients using captopril (captopril group) for more than three months , The second group included 50 newly diagnosed untreated hypertensive patients (control group). Serum uric acid, serum urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium concentration were measured using special kits and creatinine clearance (Crcl) were calculated by Cockroft and Gault equation and all were compared in the two groups.
Results: Serum uric acid decreased significantly in captopril group while the renal function tests did not show any significant difference in comparison with the control group. There was a significant reduction of creatinine clearance in the captopril group in the older patients using captopril than younger patients. There were no significant effect of the dose and the duration of captopril use on serum uric acid and renal function tests , except that increasing the dose of captopril lead to a significant increase in serum potassium. Also, there was a significant increase in serum uric acid, urea , and creatinine and a significant reduction of crcl in males patients than in females patients in both groups.
Conclusion: Captopril is a safe drug for the treatment of patients with essential hypertension regarding renal function tests beside that captopril therapy causes a significant reduction of serum uric acid, but no significant effects for the dose and duration of use of captopril on serum uric acid and renal function tests except that increasing the dose of captopril lead to a significant increase in serum potassium. There were a significant reduction of mean Crcl in the captopril group with increasing of the age. Male hypertensive patients were more prone for renal impairment than female hypertensive patients.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy,
2010, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 36-43
Objectives: To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid level.
Methods: The study was conducted during the period from March to June 2008 in Mosul city as a case control study.
Participants: Subjects enrolled in this study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers composed of 47 and 40 apparently healthy male volunteers respectively with the same dietary habit, no pastmedical history of diabetes mellitus , hyperuricemia and gout , renal, lung or heart diseases or drug history affecting uric acid level. Smoker group is subdivided into heavy , moderate and mild smokers.
Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done.
Results: No significant differences in the age , serum creatinine , spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between two groups where as serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers.
In smokers there are significant negative correlations of the average number of cigarette smoked/day and the duration of smoking with serum uric acid level.
Heavy , moderate and mild smokers showed no significant differences in the age , urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio , fraction excretion of uric acid , serum creatinine and serum uric acid except a significant lower serum uric acid value in the heavy smoker compared with moderate and mild smokers .
Conclusion: The significant low serum uric acid level in smokers is due to the reduction of endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress and as this reduction is proportionate with the duration and number of cigarette smoked/day and as low uric acid predispose to cardiovascular diseases as proved by other studies, therefore, its recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking with the use of serum uric acid as a routine test for follow-up as it is inexpensive , simple to reflect antioxidant level.