Print ISSN: 1680-2594

Online ISSN: 2264-2522

Keywords : Oxidative stress

Effects of different concentrations of aqueous green tea extract against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Dawser K. Ismael; Nada N. Al-Shawi; Farah Kais Abdul-Wahab

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 30-42
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49583

Objective: The concentration-dependent nephroprotective effects of orally-administered
aqueous green tea extract (AGTE) were studied.
Materials and Methods: Forty rats of both sexes (weighing ٢٠٠-٢٥٠g) with various
concentrations {٠.٦٢٥%, ١.٢٥% and ٢.٥% of aqueous green tea extract (AGTE)} as their
main source of drinking fluid ٧ days before and ٥ days after administration of methotrexate
(MTX). The parameters of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced
glutathione (GSH) were daily measured in kidney homogenate in addition to histopathological
examinations after killing.
Results: Analysis of data revealed significant amelioration of oxidative stress in groups
of animals treated with different concentrations of AGTE compared to MTX-treated
group as evidenced by lowering MDA contents and elevation of GSH levels in kidney
tissue homogenate but the levels still significantly different compared to controls. Furthermore,
increasing concentrations of AGTE produce no concentration-dependent improvement
of the damage induced by MTX in kidney tissue, as observed in kidney rats
sections in concentrations ٠.٦٢٥% and ٢.٥% AGTE, while improvement in renal morphological
changes was observed in group of animals treated with ١.٢٥% AGTE + MTX.
Conclusion: The concentration-dependent protective effects of AGTE against MTXinduce
kidney damage were not evidenced, where higher concentration of AGTE (٢.٥%)
used in this study resulted in deterioration in the renal functions and morphology, which
may be due to its pro-oxidant effect; while renal protective effects was evidenced in a
concentration of ١.٢٥% AGTE, an effect that could be related to its antioxidant properties
at this concentration.

Evaluation of the clinical effect of melatonin on oxidative stress markers in patients with lead poisoning

Ashwaq Najeem Eldeen; Mohammed Mahmood Mohammed; Mohammad Dakhel

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 16-20
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2010.49979

Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that can be absorbed by the body, primarily through the lungs and stomach. Generally, lead poisoning occurs slowly, resulting from the gradual accumulation of lead in bone and tissue after repeated exposure. Left untreated, lead poisoning can damage many internal organs, including the kidney and the nervous system. Recent studies have shown that lead causes oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and reducing the antioxidant defense system of cells. This suggests that antioxidants may play an important role in the treatment of lead poisoning as a kind of scavengers of free radicals.
Antioxidant is any substance that reduces oxidative damage such as that caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, is a hormone produced naturally in the pineal gland at the base of the brain.
This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of melatonin in ameliorating the oxidative stress induced due to chronic exposure to lead.
Twenty male patients with chronic lead poisoning and their 20 aged matched normal controls with an age range 35-45 years were included in this study. Treatment included 3 mg capsule of melatonin antioxidant at night for two months. Heparinized venous blood samples were collected from patients before treatment and at one and two months after treatment as well as from controls to measure erythrocytes malondialdehyde (RMDA), plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), blood lead (Pb) and serum zinc (Zn) levels.
The results of the study showed a significant antioxidant activity of melatonin in eliminating the oxidative consequences of lead exposure revealed by significant reduction in oxidative stress markers ( RMDA and Pb) with a significant increase in body antioxidant defense mechanisms(TAS and Zn).

Effects of menopause on serum oxidant status and lipid profile in Mosul city

Bassam N. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2010.49977

Objectives: To study the effect of menopause associated with estrogen deficiency on lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) with evaluation of some antioxidants like, glutathione (GSH) and its relation to lipoprotein levels in women living in Mosul City.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: The study was carried out in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul City, during the period from January 2008 to April 2008.
Patients and Methods: A total of 27 women aged 20–45 years were reported to be premenopausal and 42 women aged 45–60 years were recorded to be postmenopausal. Blood samples were collected for both groups. The assessments of serum malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), estrogen, arylesterase, calcium, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were done.
Results: There were significant increase in MDA level in women after menopause in comparison with premenopausal age. On the other hand, GSH, estrogen, arylesterase, and calcium levels were significantly decreased. In respect to lipids, total cholesterol, TG, and LDL-c, were significantly increased in opposite to HDL-c, in which was decreased significantly in postmenopausal women in relation to premenopausal subjects.
Conclusion: The increase of MDA and the decrease of antioxidants concentrations like gluthathione, estrogen and HDL-c in postmenopausal women could contribute to acceleration of the cellular oxidative damage.

Effects of zinc and allopurinol in ameliorating oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers

Dawser Khalil Ismaiel

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2005.50249

Background: Oxidative stress has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic exposure to lead. Consequently, the potential role of using antioxidants of various types to provide protective effects became a major task in this respect.
Objective: This study was designed to explore the potential antioxidant effects of zinc and allopurinol in ameliorating the oxidation stress induced due to chronic exposure to lead.
Methods: Twenty-four male workers, chronically exposed to lead, were enrolled in the study and treated with a single daily dose of 50 mg zinc sulfate and 100 mg allopurinol for 2 months. Erythrocyte and plasma MDA, GSH; blood lead, plasma copper and zinc level were measured each month during treatment and one month later after termination of treatment. Only eighteen workers completed the study.
Results: During treatment, zinc and allopurinol significantly reduced excessive MDA production and elevated GSH level in association with decreasing blood lead level and improving the picture of the essential trace elements, copper and zinc in the plasma which were previously altered as a result of lead exposure.
Conclusion: the use of antioxidants like zinc and allopurinol successfully eliminated the oxidative consequences of lead exposure, and the treatment should be continuously maintained as long as there is exposure to lead.