About Journal

-A pharmacy and Medicin Journal published by the college of pharmacy , University of Mosul. -Date of first issue(2001). -No. of issue per year (1). -No. of papers per issue. -No. of issue published between 2001-2011(11)issue.
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  pharmacycollege2@yahoo.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Faris T. Abachi

ISSN: 1680-2594

Serum uric acid level and renal function tests in hypertensive patients treated by captopril

Dr. Wahda B Al-Youzbaki; Yasir Y T Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

Objective: To evaluate the effect of captopril on the serum uric acid level and renal function tests in hypertensive patients, in relation to the age and gender patients , and dose and duration of captopril use.
Patients & methods: This is a case control study conducted in the Consultatory Clinic for Internal Medicine in Ibn-Siena Teaching Hospital in Mosul/Iraq, from the 15th of October 2009 to the 15th of June 2010. A total number of 100 patients (56 males and 44 females) with mild to moderate primary hypertension, non diabetic, neither having renal diseases nor other chronic illnesses, were taken and divided into two groups: First group included 50 patients using captopril (captopril group) for more than three months , The second group included 50 newly diagnosed untreated hypertensive patients (control group). Serum uric acid, serum urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium concentration were measured using special kits and creatinine clearance (Crcl) were calculated by Cockroft and Gault equation and all were compared in the two groups.
Results: Serum uric acid decreased significantly in captopril group while the renal function tests did not show any significant difference in comparison with the control group. There was a significant reduction of creatinine clearance in the captopril group in the older patients using captopril than younger patients. There were no significant effect of the dose and the duration of captopril use on serum uric acid and renal function tests , except that increasing the dose of captopril lead to a significant increase in serum potassium. Also, there was a significant increase in serum uric acid, urea , and creatinine and a significant reduction of crcl in males patients than in females patients in both groups.
Conclusion: Captopril is a safe drug for the treatment of patients with essential hypertension regarding renal function tests beside that captopril therapy causes a significant reduction of serum uric acid, but no significant effects for the dose and duration of use of captopril on serum uric acid and renal function tests except that increasing the dose of captopril lead to a significant increase in serum potassium. There were a significant reduction of mean Crcl in the captopril group with increasing of the age. Male hypertensive patients were more prone for renal impairment than female hypertensive patients.

Glycosylation gap in a group obese subjects

Mohammad Abdul Gafoor Al kataan

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 11-16

Back ground: Obesity is major health problem worldwide that increase risk for a wide range of diseases including diabetes mellitus and heart disease. As such, it increasingly important to understand how excess adiposity can perturb normal metabolic functions specially for glucose and lipid homeostasis.
Objectives: The study design to evaluate the effects of obesity on the glycosylation process and determine the effects of increase age and BMI on measured parameters.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during the period from October 2010 to September 2011 in the department of Clinical Pharmacy under approval of scientific and ethics committee. One hundred individuals were included in this work divided into 2 groups. The first group included fifty apparently healthy individuals (30 males and 20 females) with BMI (21±3.1 Kg/m2). The second group included fifty individuals (30 males and 20 females) with BMI (28.± 1.3 Kg/m2) whose defined as obese.
Results: The study demonstrated a significant elevation in serum glucose, mean blood glucose, serum fructosamin, measured and predicted HbA1c in obese individuals as compared with those of control individuals. Glycosylation gap showed a significant elevation in obese subjects when compared to control individual that mean significant elevation in intracellular glycosylation process. Regarding the relation between age and measured parameters, the study showed no significant correlation between age and measured parameters in the control group, while in obese group there were a significant correlation( r = 0.03) between ages and predicted HbA1c and BMI( p ≤ 0.05).Regarding the relation between BMI and measured parameters, the study showed significant correlation between measured parameters and BMI in obese individuals, while in control group only serum glucose and MBG were correlated to BMI ( r = 0.01) at ( p ≤ 0.05).
Conclusion: obese subjects shows significant increase in glycosylation gap, so there is a significant intracellular glycosylation process that was related to many diseases process and their complication.

Oral candidal colonization in immunocompromised patients

Zahraa S. Kasim; Manahil M. Yehia

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 17-26

Objective: 1. To identify Candida species isolated from saliva of predicatively immunocompromised (cancer, diabetic) patients and control group. 2. To test the susceptibility of all the isolated yeasts against 6 antifungal agents, namely amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole. 3. Then to compare the growth and density of yeasts from immunocompromised patients to those from healthy control group.
Patients and Methods: This study included 120 saliva samples from immunocompromised patients, 60 of them with cancer and under treatment, the other 60 patients have uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, attending the Al-Wafa'a Center for diabetic patients and the consultative clinic of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Hospital. The clinical specimens were collected during the period from January-June 2011. In addition to 60 saliva samples from a healthy individuals. The identification of the isolated yeasts was carried by fluorescent and/or light microscope, culture on different types of media, biochemical tests and API-20 C system. Susceptibility test to six antifungal agents was prepared for each isolate.
Results: Eighty seven (72.5%) patients showed the presence of yeasts in their saliva in comparison to 18(30%) from the control group. Eighty four isolates from genus Candida identified into 8 species mainly C. albicans. The isolates showed the best susceptibility to amphotericin B.
Conclusions: A higher frequency of yeasts were detected in the immunocompromised patients in comparison to the control group. This is considered a risk factor for infection. Candida albicans is the main isolate but there was a shift to non –albicans Candida spp. in immunocompromised patients. This means that are more resistant to antifungal agents.

Evaluation of biochemical parameters in calcium oxalate renal stone formers

Mannal Abd AL-Monim Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 27-35

Background: Calcium oxalate renal stones are the most predominant cases of renal stones, their formation is more complex and no specific cause for the stone can be identified so called 'idiopathic'. This study was designed to analyze the metabolic and biochemical alterations in serum, urine and their relation to pathophysiology of calcium oxalate stone formation
Patients and Methods : In this study, individuals have been classified into three groups: Group (A) included (29) apparently healthy persons of non calcium oxalate stone formers aged (20-35 years), group (B) included (16) patients with calcium oxalate renal stone aged (20-35 years) and group(C) included (15) patients with calcium oxalate renal stone aged (40-70 years). Fasting serum, random urine and 24-hours urine samples were collected from all individuals to determine urine volume, creatinine clearance, serum and urine levels of calcium, phosphate ,uric acid ,zinc, copper and serum levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoproprotien-cholesterol and urea .
Results: Calcium oxalate stone formers group (B) exhibited significantly decreased serum levels of uric acid (P=0.015),zinc (P=0.031) with increased serum level of total cholesterol(P=0.034) when compared to similar age group of healthy control ,group (A). Urinary parameters in calcium oxalate stone formers also showed significantly increased levels of 24-hour urine calcium(P=0.05) and urine calcium: creatinine ratio (P=0.05)when compared to healthy control. While, older age calcium oxalate stone formers, group (C) showed significantly decreased urine volume (P=0.015)with increased kidney stone size(P=0.03) when compared to younger age calcium oxalate stone formers, group (B).
Conclusions: Level of urinary calcium and urine volume are the most important urinary factors in enhancing calcium oxalate stone formation. While the observed changes in biochemical measurements of serum in calcium oxalate stone formers may indicate a probable metabolic relation in pathogenesis of this disease.

Effects of antioxidant supplement and metformin therapy on C-reactive protein and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Zeina A Munim Al-Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 36-46

Objectives: The study aims to compare the effects of metformin and antioxidant vitamins C and E on C-reactive protein (CRP) and oxidative/antioxidant status (represented by serum malondialehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in newly diagnosed patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at baseline and after 3 months of therapy compared with the control group.
Patients and Methods: The study was performed in Al-Wafaa Center of Diabetes Management and Research in Mosul, Iraq. They included 91 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 healthy controls. The patients were divided into two groups: The first group (n = 44) was received metformin alone orally for duration of 3 months and the second group (n = 47) was received metformin with vitamin C and E orally for duration of 3 months also. Fasting blood samples were obtained from both controls and patients (before and after treatment) and assays were done for determination of serum MDA, TAS, and CRP.
Results: Compared with controls, patients serum levels of MDA, and CRP were significantly high and TAS were significantly lower. After 3 months of treatment, both patients groups reported significant reductions in serum levels of MDA, CRP and a significant increase in serum levels of TAS, compared with the pre-treatment levels. The present study found that there was a non significant difference in serum MDA levels between the two patients groups (p=0.026), whereas serum TAS levels was significantly higher and CRP was significantly lower in the second group as compared to the first group.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that three months oral consumption of combined antioxidant vitamins C and E with metformin in patients with T2DM showed significantly beneficial effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory response compared with metformin alone. The findings of this study necessitate investigating the overall clinical impact of antioxidant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to maintain good glycemic control.

Anthropometric and Hormonal Study of Breast Cancer Patients in Slemani City.

Gulshan Omer Ahmed; Ban Mousa Rashid

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 47-54

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division leading to growth of abnormal tissue.
The aims of the study were to evaluate the serum levels of Progesterone, Estradiol and Prolactin in women with breast cancer and to study the effect of anthropometric factors on breast cancer development. The subject enrolled in the study were divided into (58) breast cancer women and (30) healthy women as controls in Slemani city. The data obtained showed: highly significant elevation of Prolactin in breast cancer women compared with control (P<0.005), while no significant difference in Progesterone and Estradiol. The percentage of breast cancer is higher in urban areas than rural area, in the age ≥45 years, in the body weight ≥70 kg, in non smokers than smokers, and in those who did not have a family history of breast cancer.

The effects of glibenclamide on thyroid function tests in type 2 diabetic patients

Marwan M. Merkhan

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 55-61

Objective: to determine the long-term effect of glibenclamide on thyroid function tests in type 2 diabetic patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 63 diabetic patients, 32 type 2 on glibenclamide and 31 type 1 on insulin, were enrolled in this study. Thirty two, apparently healthy volunteers, were also included in the study as a control group. Blood samples were taken from the patients and controls, then the serum were analysed for measurement of fasting serum glucose (FSG), thyroid hormones (total T3, fT3, total T4, fT4) and TSH.
Results: the result showed that there were no significant differences between thyroid hormones and TSH of the glibenclamide group when compared to the same parameters in the control group, however the fT3 and fT4 of insulin group were significantly lower than that of the control and glibenclamide groups. There were no significant differences between total T3 and total T4 of control, glibenclamide and insulin groups when compared to each others, whereas the TSH of insulin group was significantly higher than that of control and glibenclamide groups.
Conclusion: long term therapy with glibenclamide have no effect on thyroid function tests in type 2 diabetic patients and there was no correlation between glycemic control and thyroid hormones or TSH.

Effect of atorvastatin in combination with different oral antidiabetic medications on lipid parameters and glucose level

Mohammed N. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 62-69

Background: Dyslipidemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and is regarded as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin for the treatment of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetics using either metformin or glibenclamide as oral hypoglycemic agents.
Materials and methods: Fourty five type 2 diabetic patients diagnosed with dyslipidemia met the study criteria and received 20 mg/day atorvastatin, then followed after 2 months. The various biochemical parameters studied included glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum glucose levels (FSG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI).
Results showed that atorvastatin in both studied groups caused significant reduction in all measured parameters with an elevation in HDL, but this effect was obvious and more significant in patients using metformin than those using glibenclamide.
Conclusion: This study concluded that the combination of atorvastatin and metformin was more effective on lipid profile and glucose level than atorvastatin plus glibenclamide in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia.

Comparative evaluation of the effect of Nigella sativa extracts and nystatin as a traditional drug on Candida albicans in the primary school students in Mosul and Tikrit cities.

Maymona K.Yahya; Rahman A. Altae; Abdul

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 70-78

Objectives: To detect and compare the inhibitory effect of Nigella sativa extracts and compare their effects with traditional drugs on Candida albicans.
Introduction: The developing microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of such infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health centers. Therefore, the antifungal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the seeds against Candida albicans from primary school students were investigated.
Materials and Methods: The in vitro antifungal effect of the extracts at a concentration of (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40)mg ⁄ ml on C. albicans isolated was assessed and compared with traditional drug, nystatin using agar diffusion assay.
Results: The aqueous extract did not show any inhibitory effect against the isolated Candida. The alcoholic extract indicated significant inhibitory effect. nystatin show inhibitory effect higher than alcoholic extract at a concentration 40 mg ⁄ ml.
Discussion: The results of this study revealed clear potentiality of N. sativa as a source for antifungal drugs and support its use in folk medicine for the treatment of fungal intestinal infections. This finding warrants necessity of further investigation of this product of folk medicine.

Synergistic activity of azithromycin combined with metronidazole against toxoplasmosis in experimental mice

Ziad H.Al-jader; Abdulsalam M. Al-Mukhtar

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 32-35

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of synergistic activity of azithromycin combined with metronidazole against toxoplasmosis experimentally induced in murine model.
Material & Methods: Albino mice model (balb/c mice) acutly infected with tachyzoites, were treated for 10days from day +1 postinfection with administration of azithromycin combined with metronidazol.
Results: The results showed that prolonged survival of albino mice relative to that of untreated control, and the dead mice were found only in the control group. This experiment showed that a remarkable synergistic effect on toxoplasmosis was obsereved when azithromycin was adminstratered in combination with metronidazole at cuurative dosage i.e.(250 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively. These results showed that azithromycin, which is remarkably active on toxoplasmosis, significantly potentiates the curative effect of metronidazol in the treatment. The treated mice in uncontrolled group were completely cured from toxoplasmosis as their brain were free of T. gondii cyst either microscopically or by bioassay.
Conclusion: Combined drugs of azithromycin and metronidazole showed a cure rate of 100% in experimental murine toxoplasmosis.

Serum magnesium in diabetic retinopathy: relation to glycated haemoglobin and lipid profile

Amjad H. Al- Naemi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 57-67

The aim of this study was to evaluate serum magnesium status in diabetic retinopathy and to investigate its relation to serum lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as a marker for long- term metabolic control in diabetes. The current case control study has enrolled 25 type 2 diabetics without retinopathy (Group 1), 25 diabetics with retinopathy (Group 2) and 21 apparently healthy non- diabetic control subjects (Group 3). Overnight fasting serum magnesium, lipid profile and HbA1c concentration were analyzed for all subjects. The mean serum magnesium level was significantly lower in Group (2) compared to that of Group 1 (p< 0.001). The mean serum triglycerides (TGs) and HbA1c levels were significantly higher in Group 2 (p< 0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noticed comparing the mean serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in both groups 1 and 2 (p> 0.05).
The study revealed a significant negative correlation between serum magnesium on one hand and serum TGs, TC, LDL- cholesterol and HbA1c on the other hand where r= - 0.646, - 0.47, - 0.335, and - 0.825 respectively. Meanwhile serum magnesium was significantly and positively correlated with HDL- cholesterol levels (r= 0.395, p> 0.001). Using Forward Stepwise Multiple Regression analysis, the study revealed that hypomagnesaemia, poor glycaemic control and increasing duration of diabetes are the most important contributors to the cumulative risk for the development of diabetic retinopathy (Odds ratios 16.65, 566 and 7.36 respectively).
In conclusion, magnesium depletion is a significant risk factor for, and a frequent finding in, diabetic retinopathy beside poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia (mainly hypertriglyceridaemia), and increasing duration of uncontrolled diabetes. The significant association between hypomagnesaemia and high fasting serum levels of TGs, TC, LDL-cholesterol and HbA1c would rather support the suggested role for magnesium depletion in the metabolic derangements associated with retinopathy in diabetic patients. Further studies on the effects of magnesium supplementation for diabetic patients are necessary to investigate the spectrum of metabolic improvements following magnesium therapy and the degree to which the risk of diabetic retinopathy might be reduced.

Evaluation of CA 15-3, Her-2/neu and estrogen/progesterone status in breast cancer patients treated by surgical removal and chemotherapy

Taha H Taha Al-siagh; Shahbaa A Al-bayati; Faris A Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate serum CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients after surgery and chemotherapy. The relationship between serum CA 15-3 and Her-2/neu, estrogen, or progesterone receptors were also studied in the breast cancer patients.
Patients and methods: This study was conducted at Al-Jammhori Teaching Hospital, and Al-Zahrawi Private Hospital, Mosul, Iraq, during the period from January to Jun 2011. Fifty breast cancer women diagnosed by using triple assessments by a surgeon (history examination, ultrasound mammography, and fine needle aspiration cytology) were included in the study. Blood samples (5 mL) were taken from the patients and analyzed for serum CA 15-3 by monoclonal antibody technique. The blood samples were taken from the patients a week before and after one week of the operation and other blood samples were taken after two weeks of the first cycle of chemotherapy treatment. Combination therapy of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, for three cycles every 21 days, was given to the patients, followed by three cycles docytaxil every 21 days. Samples from the tumor on paraffin sections taken from the patients were analyzed for Her-2/neu, estrogen and progesterone receptors by immunochemical methods.
Results: Serum CA 15-3 was significantly decreased by 54% (p ≤ 0.001) after surgical removal of the cancer compared with results before surgery. Chemotherapy of the patients further decreased serum CA 15-3 significantly by 78% (p ≤ 0.001) compared with the results before surgery. CA 15-3 and tumor size in positive Her-2/neu patients were significantly higher than in negative Her-2/neu patients. However, serum CA 15-3 and tumor size in positive estrogen patients were significantly lower than in negative estrogen patients. In progesterone positive patient's serum CA 15-3 was only significantly (p ≤ 0.001) lower than in the negative progesterone patients. Mean ages was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) higher in positive Her-2/neu patients than in negative Her-2/neu patients. However, mean ages was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) higher in positive estrogen and progesterone patients than in negative receptors. Metastasis occurred in 39 patients (78 %) out of the studied patients. Negative significant correlation was noticed between Her 2/neu and estrogen receptors (r= - 0.745, p ≤ 0.001). Negative significant correlation was also noticed between Her 2/neu and progesterone receptors (r= - 0.786, p ≤ 0.001). Weak but significant correlation was found between serum CA 15-3 and tumor size (r= 0.281, p≤ 0.05).
Conclusion: CA 15-3 and Her 2/neu are useful tumor markers for diagnosis of breast cancer in the treatment through surgery and chemotherapy. The co-expression between hormonal and Her-2/neu receptors is negative. The need for more sensitive tumor markers is still wanted.

The effect of antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of epilepsy

Nazar A.K. hamid

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 27-33

Aim: To assess serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status
(TAS) as a representative of oxidative stress in patients with generalized epilepsy and
to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant (vitamin E and vitamin C) on the
levels of MDA,TAS and frequency of seizures attacks after two months therapy. for a
period of two months as a supplementation therapy.
Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in Iben-seena Hospital in Mosul
city-Iraq. Fifty three patients with generalized epilepsy were included in this study
(32 male and 21 female). The study included 40 apparently healthy subjects, age and
sex matched as a control group. Initially from both the patients and controls, blood
samples were taken. Another blood samples were taken from the patients 2 months
after vitamin E and vitamin C treatment, blood samples were analysed for serum
MDA and serum TAS.
Result: Serum MDA was found to be significantly higher ( P<0.001) and serum TSA
was significantly lower (P<0.001) in patients with generalized epilepsy prior vitamin
E and vitamin C supplementation in comparison to controls. After vitamin E and C
supplementation there was a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the serum MDA levels
with a significant increase (P<0.001) in the serum TAS. Also we found a reduction in
seizure frequency of greater than 70% after vitamin E and C supplementation.
Conclusion: a significant reduction of TSA was reported in patients with epilepsy.
Administration of vitamin E and C produced a significant reduction of serum MAD
levels and a significant elevation of serum TAS, associated with a reduction of greater
than 70% of seizure frequency. The study suggests the administration of vitamin E
and C as adjunct to antiepileptic drugs.

Evaluation of the clinical effect of melatonin on oxidative stress markers in patients with lead poisoning

Ashwaq Najeem Eldeen; Mohammed Mahmood Mohammed; Mohammad Dakhel

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 16-20

Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that can be absorbed by the body, primarily through the lungs and stomach. Generally, lead poisoning occurs slowly, resulting from the gradual accumulation of lead in bone and tissue after repeated exposure. Left untreated, lead poisoning can damage many internal organs, including the kidney and the nervous system. Recent studies have shown that lead causes oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and reducing the antioxidant defense system of cells. This suggests that antioxidants may play an important role in the treatment of lead poisoning as a kind of scavengers of free radicals.
Antioxidant is any substance that reduces oxidative damage such as that caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, is a hormone produced naturally in the pineal gland at the base of the brain.
This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of melatonin in ameliorating the oxidative stress induced due to chronic exposure to lead.
Twenty male patients with chronic lead poisoning and their 20 aged matched normal controls with an age range 35-45 years were included in this study. Treatment included 3 mg capsule of melatonin antioxidant at night for two months. Heparinized venous blood samples were collected from patients before treatment and at one and two months after treatment as well as from controls to measure erythrocytes malondialdehyde (RMDA), plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), blood lead (Pb) and serum zinc (Zn) levels.
The results of the study showed a significant antioxidant activity of melatonin in eliminating the oxidative consequences of lead exposure revealed by significant reduction in oxidative stress markers ( RMDA and Pb) with a significant increase in body antioxidant defense mechanisms(TAS and Zn).

Evaluation of CA 15-3, Her-2/neu and estrogen/progesterone status in breast cancer patients treated by surgical removal and chemotherapy

Taha H Taha Al-siagh; Shahbaa A Al-bayati; Faris A Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate serum CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients after surgery and chemotherapy. The relationship between serum CA 15-3 and Her-2/neu, estrogen, or progesterone receptors were also studied in the breast cancer patients.
Patients and methods: This study was conducted at Al-Jammhori Teaching Hospital, and Al-Zahrawi Private Hospital, Mosul, Iraq, during the period from January to Jun 2011. Fifty breast cancer women diagnosed by using triple assessments by a surgeon (history examination, ultrasound mammography, and fine needle aspiration cytology) were included in the study. Blood samples (5 mL) were taken from the patients and analyzed for serum CA 15-3 by monoclonal antibody technique. The blood samples were taken from the patients a week before and after one week of the operation and other blood samples were taken after two weeks of the first cycle of chemotherapy treatment. Combination therapy of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, for three cycles every 21 days, was given to the patients, followed by three cycles docytaxil every 21 days. Samples from the tumor on paraffin sections taken from the patients were analyzed for Her-2/neu, estrogen and progesterone receptors by immunochemical methods.
Results: Serum CA 15-3 was significantly decreased by 54% (p ≤ 0.001) after surgical removal of the cancer compared with results before surgery. Chemotherapy of the patients further decreased serum CA 15-3 significantly by 78% (p ≤ 0.001) compared with the results before surgery. CA 15-3 and tumor size in positive Her-2/neu patients were significantly higher than in negative Her-2/neu patients. However, serum CA 15-3 and tumor size in positive estrogen patients were significantly lower than in negative estrogen patients. In progesterone positive patient's serum CA 15-3 was only significantly (p ≤ 0.001) lower than in the negative progesterone patients. Mean ages was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) higher in positive Her-2/neu patients than in negative Her-2/neu patients. However, mean ages was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) higher in positive estrogen and progesterone patients than in negative receptors. Metastasis occurred in 39 patients (78 %) out of the studied patients. Negative significant correlation was noticed between Her 2/neu and estrogen receptors (r= - 0.745, p ≤ 0.001). Negative significant correlation was also noticed between Her 2/neu and progesterone receptors (r= - 0.786, p ≤ 0.001). Weak but significant correlation was found between serum CA 15-3 and tumor size (r= 0.281, p≤ 0.05).
Conclusion: CA 15-3 and Her 2/neu are useful tumor markers for diagnosis of breast cancer in the treatment through surgery and chemotherapy. The co-expression between hormonal and Her-2/neu receptors is negative. The need for more sensitive tumor markers is still wanted.

Unlicensed and off-label drug use in paediatric wards

Suhair Moayid Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 53-57

Objective: To determine the proportion of unlicensed &/or off-label prescriptions in paediatric
patients.
Patients & Methods; This prospective study of drugs administered to children in two
paediatric hospital (ib-A!theer, A!-Kanasaa hospital for pediatrics in mosul city, over 6 months
from 1st Nov. 2007 to 1st May 2008. One hundred-forty children were included in this study
aged from at birth to 6 years admitted to paediatric medical wards. Drug-licensing status of all
prescriptions given to these patients was determined.
Results: Of the 1208 prescription given to these children, more than half of all prescriptions
626 (51 ,8%) were unlicensed or off-label. Where as 582 (48.2%) licensed. The most common
category of off-label use 365 (30.2%) was related to age 217 (17.9%), the other off-label uses
were related to dose and frequency of administration 77 (6.4%), indication 55 (4.6%) and
route of administration 16 (1.3%) and the most common reason of unlicensed preparation
was the administration of preparation not licensed for use at all.
Conclusion: The use of unlicensed or off- label medicines to treat children was found to be
common in paediatric patients, this problem is Widespread in peadiatric wards &the clinical

Screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip in the newborns

Mohamad Ah. Jasim; Bashar Sh. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 79-91

Background: Newborn babies are known to have risk for occurrence developmental
dysplasia of the hip so early clinical screening test is very important to detect this
problem and prevent further abnormal growth. The aim of this study is to find the rate
of occurrence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) among newborn babies
and establish good screening program.
Patients and methods: From August ٢٠٠٦ to March ٢٠٠٩ in AL-Khansaa
Maternity and Children Teaching hospitals, ٩٥٩٢ newborn babies were examined
clinically using Barlows and ortolani tests for detecting DDH.
Results: Only ١٦٢ newborn babies out of ٩٥٩٢ examined babies had DDH and it was
found more common among female and more on left side than right side. Female sex,
rural residence, first born baby breach, caesarean section positive family history,
multiple pregnancy post-mature babies, high birth weight (>٣٥٠٠ g).
Conclusion: The occurrence of neonatal DDH is still form a major problem among
newborn babies causing a lot of morbidity need to follow up to avoid further
complicating problem.

Comparative evaluation of different marketed products of ciprofloxacin tablets in vitro

Mus; ab M. Khalaf; Hiyam A Al-Taii; Imad A-J Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 9-15

The contents of four ciprofloxacin tablets products available in the private pharmacies of Mosul city were measured according to the British Pharmacopoeia (BP). Some biopharmaceutical parameters such as content uniformity, disintegration, and hardness were also measured for the same products. In addition, the antibacterial activity of these four products were assessed by microbiological assay on different types of gram negative bacteria in vitro.
The results indicated that there is a little differences in the content uniformity of these products and they are within acceptable requirement of BP and United State Pharmacopoeia (USP). In the same manner, the weight variation, disintegration, and hardness were within acceptable range according to the BP and USP. The microbiological assay indicated that these different products produce approximately the same inhibition zones on the same bacterial type.
The above results may be useful to predict the bioavailability of these different products .

Effects of different concentrations of aqueous green tea extract against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Dawser K. Ismael; Nada N. Al-Shawi; Farah Kais Abdul-Wahab

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 30-42

Objective: The concentration-dependent nephroprotective effects of orally-administered
aqueous green tea extract (AGTE) were studied.
Materials and Methods: Forty rats of both sexes (weighing ٢٠٠-٢٥٠g) with various
concentrations {٠.٦٢٥%, ١.٢٥% and ٢.٥% of aqueous green tea extract (AGTE)} as their
main source of drinking fluid ٧ days before and ٥ days after administration of methotrexate
(MTX). The parameters of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced
glutathione (GSH) were daily measured in kidney homogenate in addition to histopathological
examinations after killing.
Results: Analysis of data revealed significant amelioration of oxidative stress in groups
of animals treated with different concentrations of AGTE compared to MTX-treated
group as evidenced by lowering MDA contents and elevation of GSH levels in kidney
tissue homogenate but the levels still significantly different compared to controls. Furthermore,
increasing concentrations of AGTE produce no concentration-dependent improvement
of the damage induced by MTX in kidney tissue, as observed in kidney rats
sections in concentrations ٠.٦٢٥% and ٢.٥% AGTE, while improvement in renal morphological
changes was observed in group of animals treated with ١.٢٥% AGTE + MTX.
Conclusion: The concentration-dependent protective effects of AGTE against MTXinduce
kidney damage were not evidenced, where higher concentration of AGTE (٢.٥%)
used in this study resulted in deterioration in the renal functions and morphology, which
may be due to its pro-oxidant effect; while renal protective effects was evidenced in a
concentration of ١.٢٥% AGTE, an effect that could be related to its antioxidant properties
at this concentration.

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