The Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy (Iraqi J. Pharm.) is an open-access journal of pharmacy and medicine published by the College of Pharmacy at the University of Mosul. The first issue was published in 2001. There were 24 issues published from that time to the present, and since 2005, it has been available online in PDF and HTML. Iraqi J. Pharm. required a fee for publishing an accepted manuscript since the journal is not financially supported by governmental or non-governmental organizations. Iraqi J. Pharm. is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 international license and provides a DOI number for each published article. From the begining of 2024, the journal will publish 4 issues at the first days of the March, June, September, and December.

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Mechanisms and Linkage of Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and Inflammation

khalil Amjad Hadid; Fawaz A. Alassaf; Mohammed Najim Abed

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 1-8

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.144181.1065

Abstract
  Background: Chronic inflammation is responsible for low insulin sensitivity, making obesity a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines activates several signaling pathways, consequently leading ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Evaluation of the Expression of Immunohistochemical Staining of PDL1 in Renal Cell Cancer

Rihab Mohammed Edress Al-Nuaimy; Nadwa SM. Al-Azzo

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 9-14

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2024.145039.1071

Abstract
  Background and objectives: To evade anti-tumour responses, tumour cells expressed programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), which play a role in suppressing the adaptive arm of immune systems. It has been disputed, meanwhile, whether PDL1 expression in Renal cell cancer (RCC) has any predictive value. Anti-PDL1 ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Evaluate the Fluctuation in the Level of PTH, and Assess the Relationship Between PTH and Some Biochemical Parameter in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

Zahraa H. Alsarraf; Nahla A. Saber

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 15-19

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.145254.1076

Abstract
  Background: As a key regulator of bone metabolism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) also modulates the homeostatic response to changes in plasma calcium concentrations. PTH values are often used in patients with “chronic kidney disease (CKD)” as a surrogate for assessing bone and mineral disease ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Comprehensive View on Drugs-Induced Cardiotoxicity and Its Prevention

Abdulnaser Ahmad Ali; Musab Mohammed Khalaf; Abdulla A. Ahmad

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 20-35

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2024.145016.1070

Abstract
  Background: The prevention of drug-induced cardiotoxicity is a complicated challenge facing healthcare providers during the last few decades. This challenge is raised from the unclear definition of the term “cardiotoxicity”, the overlapping of the symptoms of heart dysfunction due to the ...  Read More ...

Clinical Pharmacy
Smoking Behaviors and Related Factors Among Secondary School Students in Duhok City

Alaa Noori Sarkees; Sardar Abdullah Issa

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, Page 36-44

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.145584.1077

Abstract
  Background: The use of tobacco products among adolescents is a global health concern with reduced available information about the driving cause enhancing smoking in school-age adolescents and the synchronised role of friends, school, and parents in initiating the adolescent quitting. Aim: This study ...  Read More ...

Drug Abuse as a Contemporary Social Problem

Zena S. Hamed

Volume 18, Issue 2 , December 2021, , Page 194-202

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170407

Abstract
  Objective: Drug abuse and its repercussions are of the most serious problems in society nowadays. This is because of their enormous influence on the individual, the family, and its social effects like crime, social marginalization, and death from overdose or suicide, as well as on the economy.The latest ...  Read More ...

The effect of metformin on some liver function tests in type 2 diabetic patients

Islam T.Q. AI-Mola; Faris A. Ahmed

Volume 6, Issue 1 , December 2006, , Page 25-27

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2006.50554

Abstract
  Objectives: To study the effect of metformin on serum glucose and some liver function tests including serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin in type 2 diabetic patients. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study ...  Read More ...

The Efficacy of Azelaic Acid 20% Cream in the Treatment of Scalp Alopecia Areata

Mudheher I. Salih; Dindar S. Qurtas

Volume 19, Issue 1 , July 2022, , Page 23-33

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174798

Abstract
  Introduction: Alopecia areata is a common, inflammatory, non-scarring type of hair loss that affects persons of both sexes and all age groups, with prevalence in the general population of approximately 0.1–0.2%. It is characterized by variable clinical presentations, ranging from single or multiple ...  Read More ...

Effect of melatonin on oxidative stress markers in patients with alopecia areata

AL- Gaff AN; Humadi S; Wohaieb S.A

Volume 5, Issue 1 , December 2005, , Page 33-39

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2005.50259

Abstract
  Alopecia areata is an autoimmune, nonscarring, multifocal disorder of hair growth characterized by circular bald areas, which occur on any hair bearing site of the body. The exact cause of alopecia areata is unknown. Recent study reported a potential role of oxygen free radicals (OFR) in pathogenesis ...  Read More ...

Quality of different brands of metronidazole available in jimma town, south west Ethiopia; A cross- sectional pharmaceutical quality study

Teshome Sosengo; Tesfaye Mohammed; Ramanjireddy Tatiparthi

Volume 17, Issue 1 , January 2020, , Page 1-18

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2020.167595

Abstract
  Background: WHO report of 2017 estimates that the rates of substandard and falsified medical products in low- and middle-income countries is approximately 10.5% with an estimated spend of US$ 30.5 billion.Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of different brands of metronidazole ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Mechanisms and Counteracting Herbal-Derived Products

Doha Ismail Alrawi; Musab Mohammed Khalaf; Mohammed Khalid Jamaludeen

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 08 March 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.145444.1078

Abstract
  Background: Exposure to both synthetic and naturally occurring chemical substances can cause a wide range of reactions such as Drug-Induced Liver Injury(DILI). It is a serious problem due to the increasing number of substances being used for the treatment of different illnesses, coupled with the growing ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
The Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of p63 in Atypical Proliferative Lesions and Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

Marwa Muzahim Majeed; Ashraf M. Majeed; Ekhlas A. Ali; Nazar M. Jawhar

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 19 March 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.147059.1087

Abstract
  Background: The transcription factor p63 is a member of a family of transcription factors p53, which play a fundamental role in cell growth, multiplication, programming, differentiation and apoptosis, henceforth, aberrantly involved in the form of different variants in breast cancers. Objectives: The ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Role of Melatonin in the Onset of Metabolic Syndrome in Men

Elham Hasan Mahmood; Nihad Nejres Hilal

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 03 April 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.147371.1089

Abstract
  Background:  This prospective hospital-based study conducted in Tikrit City (Iraq) aimed to investigate the role of melatonin and the level of haemoglobin A1c and lipid profile concentrations in metabolic syndrome patients. The present study sought to identify the role of serum melatonin in MetS ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude of Waterpipe Smoking Among University Students in Syria: A Cross Sectional Study

Muaaz Alajlani; Isam Chama; Hiba Mohammad; Raghad Fayyad

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 12 April 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.146888.1088

Abstract
  Background: Waterpipe smoking, also known as hookah or shisha smoking, has gained popularity in recent years, particularly among young adults and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four universities in Syria, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire aimed to determine ...  Read More ...

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