About Journal

The Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy (Iraqi J. Pharm.) is an open-access journal of pharmacy and medicine published by the college of pharmacy at the University of Mosul. The first issue was published in 2001. There were 21 issues published from that time to the present, and since 2005, it has been available online in PDF and HTML. Iraqi J. Pharm. required a $100 fee for publishing an accepted manuscript since Iraqi J. Pharm. is not financially supported by governmental or non-governmental organizations. Iraqi J. Pharm. is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 international...
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Depression and Anxiety among Diabetic Patients and Associated Factors

Israa M. Salih; Harith Kh. Al-Qazaz

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176644

Introduction:
Anxiety and depression considered as the risk factors for diabetes, as well as they are two of its complications. This study was conducted to explain the prevalence of depression and anxiety among T2DM and its associated factors.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Al-Wafaa (Diabetes Center in Mosul). Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ - 9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD - 7) were used to evaluate all patients for anxiety and depression.
Results:
In this study 380 patients participated their mean age was 55.47 ± 8.35 ranging between 35 – 82 years and the mean BMI was 29.69 ± 5.04. More than half of these patients (54.7%) were men and (98.7%) of them were married. The mean HbA1c level was 8.68 ± 1.47 and the mean duration of diabetes was 10.18 years. The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety were 79.5% and 79.2% respectively.
Conclusion:
Anxiety and depression are common problems among diabetic patients, more than two third of the study population had varying degrees of anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression in diabetic patients were significantly related to HbA1c, gender, educational level, employment, and monthly income. 

The Role of Intralesional Vitamin D3 injection in Treatment of Cutaneous Warts

Fenk F. Ali; Sangar Jalal

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 18-32
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176646

Background: Cutaneous warts are treated primarily with destructive methods such as cryotherapy or electro-cautery. These modalities of treatment are time‑consuming and may be associated with scarring in multiple warts. Immunotherapy is emerging as a new modality of treatment that acts on enhancing cell‑mediated immunity against human papillomavirus for clearance of both treated and distant warts.
Aim of the study: To show the efficacy of Intralesional vitamin D3 in treating cutaneous warts.
Methods: A total of 50 patients were included in the study. They were injected with vitamin D3 300000 IU (up to 0.5 ml for each wart) at two weeks intervals for maximum of 4 sessions. The clinical response was assessed by photographic measurements at baseline, before each session, and after the completion of treatment and they were followed after 6 months for discovering any recurrence.
Results: in this study among 50 patients the response rate to vitamin D3 intralesionally was 94% in general, the mild response was seen in 20(40%) patients and moderate response was seen in 16 (32%) patients while the complete response was 11 (22%) patients. No serious side effects were observed except for pain at the site of injection which most of the patients had.
Limitation: small sample size with lack of control group.
Conclusions: Intralesional vitamin D shows a good response in the treatment of viral warts.

In vitro Assessment of the Antimicrobial Potential of Some Commercial Herbal Products

Zahraa A. Hashim

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 33-45
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176647

Natural plant products have been widely used as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections to overcome issues of antibiotics-associated side effects and the emergence of resistant pathogens. One of the most popular infections causing significant morbidity and death toll is urinary tract infection. This study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of four commercial herbal products against five uropathogenic clinical isolates. In vitro, well diffusion assay and crystal violet staining techniques were used to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects respectively. Antimicrobial effect was reported for Renalka™ against Enterococcus faecium, ROWAtinex® against Staphylococcus aureus and E. faecium and UROCLEAR against Candida albicans. A significant antibiofilm effect, semi-quantified by stained biomass, was reported for all of the products included in the study against the tested pathogens but to a varying degree. Medicinal herbal products can exert a substantial prophylactic antibiofilm effect in addition to their beneficial health effects in treating urological pathologies. 
 

Association Between Mean Platelet Volume And Disease Activity In Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis

Talar A. Mustafa; Masar I. Esho

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 46-54
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176649

Background: Mean platelet volume is an important marker that shows the activation and function of the platelet which is effective in the inflammatory process.
Aim of the study: To show the relationship between mean platelet volume and disease activity score in psoriatic arthritis patients (PsA).
Methods: a cross-sectional study was done. A total of 90 patients participated in the study. The sample was collected over 6 months. Mean platelet volume was measured and correlated with disease activity score, and the relation between mean platelet volume with other disease activity markers like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive proteins (CRP)was determined. The serum of (cholesterol, tri-glycerides, low density lipoproteins, and high density lipoproteins) were estimated and correlated with DAPSA scores.
Results: The mean (SD) of MPV was 10.4fl .It is evident in Psoriatic arthritis patients that around two thirds (64.9%) of patients were with high MPV and 39.4% of patients were with normal MPV. There is statistically significant positive correlation between the MPV and the DAPSA score, and the positive significant correlation between disease activity score with ESR, and CRP.  Also, there was a positive correlation between s. cholesterol, s. triglyceride, LDL and DAPSA score while a negative significant correlation was found between DAPSA score and HDL.
Conclusion: Higher disease activity in PsA patients is associated with correspondingly high MPV and high level of inflammatory markers like ESR and CRP, and lipid profiles.

Detection of Rubella Antibodies in Women with Repeated Miscarriage During Different Seasons in Mosul City

Karam A. Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 55-62
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176651

Background: Rubella or German measles is a viral disease transmitted via aerosol droplets affecting mainly children, Mostly, rubella is a simple and self-limiting disease with no chronic consequences, except in infected pregnant women which may result in devastating outcomes depending on the trimester of pregnancy. Materials and methods: the study enrolled 1004 women suffering from spontaneous miscarriage tested for rubella IgM antibodies using ELISA. The sampling was conducted in two different seasons, summer and winter. Results: Test reading showed that 15.23% of all tested women were positive for rubella IgM antibodies i.e. 153 out of 1004 women. Seasonal change showed no significant variation in the percentage of the infection, where 15.8% of all participants were positive in summer versus 14.35% seropositive in the winter season (p˃ 0.05). Conclusion: Rubella infection is affecting a relatively high number of women suffering from a spontaneous miscarriage in Mosul city, and there was no seasonal variation in the rate of infection.

Side Effects of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine among medical staff

Wail M. Sadeq; Eanas I. Khalid; Waleed H. Khudhur

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 63-73
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176652

Background: A key public health intervention strategy to stop the spread of infectious diseases, such as the present COVID-19 pandemic, is vaccination.  Nearly 190 COVID-19 vaccines are now being developed at various phases of pre-clinical and clinical testing, with a few vaccines recently receiving Emergency Use Authorizations (EUA) and being accepted by the WHO in several regions of the world.
Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional design was adopted to conduct the study which involve all medical staff who attends to Covid-19 vaccination center at Al-Mosul General Hospital during the period from 1st July 2021 to 31st November 2021. The study sample was 200 participants of different specializations who attend to take the 1st or the 2nd dose of the Covid-19 vaccine. The interview was done by the researchers directly through a checklist. The statistical analysis was done with IBM-SPSS-26.  
Results: The mean age of the study sample is 34.8 years, 56.5% of them are males and 43.5% are females, fever is the most frequent side effect representing 49.0%, and the inflammatory reaction at the site of injection whether mild or severe represents 35.0%, pain at the injection site occurs in 28.5%, and headache occurs in 9.5%, shows that 69.7% are females and 30.3% are males. The Pfizer vaccine of batch no. FJ8198, FM3444, and FJ1966 were associated with side effects more than others.
Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine showed that the safety of the vaccine with no major side effects emerging and females were more prone to experience side effects. The Pfizer vaccine of batch no. FJ8198, FM3444, and FJ1966 were associated with side effects more than others.

Preserving the Normal Healthy Testis: Role of Beta-carotene

Abdulla A. Ahmad

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 74-83
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176653

Background: Many drugs can have significant deleterious side effects on the different organs of the body which can change normal physiology to different pathologies. Recent research have been focusing on valuable methods to preserve the normal healthy testis from the medications’ adverse effects. The study aims to investigate the role of beta-carotene in the protection against potential amikacin’s testicular toxicity.
Materials and methods: Male rats were involved in the study. Rats have divided into four groups: the first group was control, the second group has been given amikacin as an inducer of testicular toxicity; the third group has been given both amikacin and beta-carotene, and the fourth group has been given beta-carotene as prophylaxis before induction of the toxicity. The histological architecture of the testis was investigated for all the rats.
Results: Amikacin caused a significant deleterious effect which included degeneration and necrosis of cells of seminiferous tubules as well as atrophy and congestion of blood vessels. Co-administration of both beta-carotene and amikacin resulted in a partial improvement in the testicular tissue while using beta-carotene as prophylaxis succeeded in protecting and preserving the normal histological features of the testis completely.
Conclusion: The study concluded that beta-carotene can preserve the normal physiological testis and protect it against the amikacin’s deleterious effect on the testis.

The Antimycotic Activity of Rosuvastatin

Zahraa S. Qasim

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 84-92
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176654

Background: The steady increase in microbial resistance is a global health problem as a result of uncontrolled use of antimicrobial drugs, In order to overcome the challenge, there is a continuous need to search for new antimicrobials by either investigate novel compounds or repurposing drugs i.e. identifying new clinical use for existing approved agent thus saving time and cost required to develop a new antimicrobial therapy.
Aim: This study aimed to assess the in vitro antimycotic activity of different concentrations of rosuvastatin against 4 different fungi isolated from patients with malignancies 1 mold of genus Aspergillus, of 3 spices (A. flavus, A.niger, and A. fumigatus)  and 3 yeast of genus Candida of2species (C. albicans , and C. glabrata),    one genus and species from each Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and Rhodotoryoa rubra by disc diffusion method.
Materials and Methods: Sputum was taken from 30 patients with malignant disease, different micro and macroscopical tests were used to identified the 14 isolated fungi from them 1 genus from mold of Aspergillus, and 3 genus from yeast, from genus Aspergillus 3 species recognized as tailed, A. flavus, A. niger, and A.fumigatus. On the other handfrom yeast of genus Candida, C.albicans and C.glabrata, whereas from genus Saccharomyces, and Rhodotoula, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotoula rubra were recognized.
Results: Antimycotic susceptibility test exhibited zone of inhibition against yeast ranged from (30-20), (30-15), (30-15), and (25-15) against C.albicans, C.glabrata Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotoula rubra respectively, while mold show zone of inhibition ranged from (25-10), (10-0), and (30-10) against A.flavus, A.niger, and A.fumigatus respectively, although rosuvastatin show an  antifungal activity only at dose 0.6 mg/ml against A. niger.
Conclusion: Rosuvastatin has antifungal activity apart of its pleiotropic activity of statins.

The Protective Effect of Milk Thistle Against Drug-Induced Renal Illnesses: A Review

Noor A. Abed; Musab M. Khalaf; Mohammed Kh. Alnori

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 93-107
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176655

Introduction:  Nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequent kidney problems and happens when the body becomes exposed to medicine or toxin. Because renal tubular cells have metabolic activities, nephrotoxin can produce toxic components and cause damage. Paracetamol drug is safe when taken in therapeutic doses as an antipyretic and analgesic agent but its excessive doses may result in life-threatening renal impairment due to the generation of reactive-toxic metabolites. Scientific efforts are concentrated on discovering preventative or therapeutic medications to shield against the toxicity brought on by paracetamol due to nephrotoxicity. Silymarin, a medicine, is extracted from polyphenolic compounds found in the milk thistle plant. This plant has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, and other properties and is the most commonly used drug for hepatic illnesses. Also, it has renal-protecting effects. Objective:  This review research highlights the nephroprotective of silymarin against paracetamol-induced renal damage.

Defining Pathological Iron Status in Children with Thalassemia

Bashar Sh. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2022, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 108-116
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.176656

The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has been gathered, allowing a better understanding of iron status in children with thalassemia. Children with thalassemia major typically have severe anemia during the first two stages of life and receive regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. The results show that individuals with thalassemia major who are overtly or inadequately transfused have significant body changes that affect physical growth retardation, hostility, weak musculature, leg muscle fitness, extramedullary development of hematopoiesis, and bone expansion, as seen in some developing countries. Cases of thalassemia intermedia occur late and have mild anemia, and cannot tolerate regular blood transfusions. Treatment for thalassemia major includes regular red blood cell transfusions, iron chelating drugs, and bone marrow surgery. In addition, spleen scanning may be necessary in some cases. Also, a bone marrow transplant is the only definitive treatment currently available. The prognosis for patients with beta-thalassemia has improved most over the past 25 years, mostly due to recent medical advances in blood transfusions, iron-chelating drugs, and bone marrow transplants. However, heart disease (heart disease) has been found to remain the leading cause of death in iron-related cases.

Sonographic Assessment of Submandibular Salivary Glands in Hypothyroid Rat’s Pups Before and After Ashwagandha Root Extract Treatment

Zahraa Alhalawachee; Ghada Abd Alrhman Abd Alrhman Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2023.137764.1021

Background: One of the most common chronic diseases globally is hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones serve a significant role in maintaining the proper function and shape of the salivary gland. The aim of the study: Investigate the function of Ashwagandha roots extract in providing a protection role for salivary glands in hypothyroid rats following postnatal exposure to Propylthiouracil. Materials and Methods: Ten pregnant albino rats were obtained. Until the rat pups were detected, each pregnant rat was kept individually in clean rodent plastic. At postnatal day 3 (PND3), forty male rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A, which served as a control group, and group B, which received orally (1mg/kg) Propylthiouracil (PTU) for three weeks. At PND22, group B was divided up into three subgroups: B1, the hypothyroid group that got no therapy; B2, the hypothyroid group that received an aqueous extract of Ashwagandha roots (200 mg/kg) for 21 days; and B3, the hypothyroid group that received Levothyroxine (4g/100g/day) for 21 days. At the end of the trial, the submandibular gland was assessed using sonographic instruments in all groups. Result: the sonographic assessment of hypothyroid group’s submandibular gland showed an increase in the overall size of the gland, a heterogeneous gland with a honeycomb appearance and hypoechoic regions in group remains without treatment, while the results in hypothyroid pups fed with Ashwagandha roots extract indicated a small improvement in gland size and echotexture when compared to pups who received levothyroxine, owing to its antioxidant properties.

Effects of glibenclamide and metformin on serum uric acid level in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

Najlaa Saadi Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 69-74
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49595

Objectives: To assess the effect of glibenclamide and metformin on serum uric acid level in
patients with type ٢ diabetes.
Study design: Case control study.
Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted from March ٢٠٠٩ to January ٢٠١٠.
Fasting blood sugar and serum uric acid level were measured in patients suffering from type-
٢ diabetes mellitus who were referred to Al-Wafa Diabetic Center in Mosul City. Group ١: ٣٢
patients on glibenclamide therapy, group ٢: ٤٢ patients on metformin therapy and group ٣: ٤٢
patients on combination therapy, group ٤: ٣٢ patients on restricted diet, and ٢٣ apparently
healthy volunteers, were taken as a control group.
Results: The study showed a significant increase in the serum uric acid level of the diabetic
patients as compared with the control. Glibenclamide and/or metformin showed no significant
difference in the serum uric acid level in patients with type ٢ diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion: Glibenclamide and/or metformin had no significant effect on serum uric acid
level in patients with type ٢ diabetes mellitus.

Green synthesis of Schiff bases: a review study

Ahmed A. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2021, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 180-193
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.170406

Objectives: Green chemistry is the field that implies instruments and procedures, by which it offers significant environmental and financial benefits above traditional synthetic methods. The modern attention in green chemistry has pretended an additional need for organic synthesis in which different reaction environments must locate, which decreases the use of toxic organic solvents or toxic chemicals.
These green methods must enhance the selectivity, shorten reaction time, and make the products isolation simpler than the ordinary routes. In the 19th century, Hugo Schiff recorded the first synthesis of Schiff bases (imines). A Schiff base is considered as an aldehyde with a C=N group (azomethine group) in steed of the C=O group, It is normally produced by condensation of primary amines with aldehydes. Schiff bases entertain many important biologically and pharmaceutical activities and they are distinguished for their pharmacological action and wide-range applications in the food industry.
This study tries to focus on the green synthetic methods used for Schiff bases synthesis, in order to find the best technique that offers higher yields in shorter time within eco-friendly environment.
Conclusions: The review considered many green synthetics techniques, from which the microwaves irradiation method is considered to be the best followed by the ultrasonic, natural acids utilizing and grinding methods.

Design and formulation of piroxicam tablets

Shaimaa Dhia M.S. Al-Shakarchi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2008, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 18-24
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2008.50090

Piroxicam is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a long half-life that permits once daily dose. It exerts a better toleration than other NSAID's with a relatively low incidence of adverse effects. In this study many trials were made to formulate piroxicam as plain tablets with properties comparable to those of capsules and in agreement with pharmacopoeial standards. Different formulas were prepared by the application of direct compression method and wet granulation method with the addition of different excipients. The wet granulation method used in the preparation of piroxicam tablets was modified to improve the properties of the produced tablets. The characteristics of the prepared formulas were tested and the results showed that formula D prepared by wet granulation method, containing PVP as binder and lactose as diluent is the most appropriate formula with a rapid disintegration time and complete dissolution as that of piroxicam capsules.
Accordingly, formula D was chosen to be a promising formula of piroxicam plain tablet that could be manufactured as a mass product.

Quality of different brands of metronidazole available in jimma town, south west Ethiopia; A cross- sectional pharmaceutical quality study

Teshome Sosengo; Tesfaye Mohammed; Ramanjireddy Tatiparthi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167595

Background: WHO report of 2017 estimates that the rates of substandard and falsified medical products in low- and middle-income countries is approximately 10.5% with an estimated spend of US$ 30.5 billion.
Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of different brands of metronidazole available in Jimma town, Oromia region, South West Ethiopia.
Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma town, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The study was conducted from May 03 – July 30, 2018. Samples were collected using convenience sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using methods specified in British Pharmacopoeia 2013 and United States Pharmacopoeia 2015.
Results: All the seven brands of Metronidazole analyzed for quality passed identity test specification of BP 2013. The three brands of Metronidazole capsules passed weight uniformity and dissolution test specification of USP 2015. The seven brands of Metronidazole passed assay (i.e. drug content) test specification of USP 2015. The highest percentage of drug content, 107.81% and 105.56%, obtained for Metronidazole (generic)(capsule) and Nirmet(injection) respectively. However, statistical comparison of assay of respective brands of the respective
dosage forms at 95% confidence interval indicates that there exists significant difference in assay within and among the brands of the respective dosage forms (p<0.05). All the four brands of Metronidazole injections passed USP 2015 limit for Endotoxin, Endotoxin limit ˂0.35Eu/ml. Two brands of Metronidazole injection, Aldezol and Metris, failed sterility test from the four brands of Metronidazole injections included in the study and hence of poor quality.

Comparison between quantitative and qualitative biochemical markers in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

Akram J Ahmad; Samir B Al-Mukhtar

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 102-110
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49916

Objectives: To compare between the qualitative estimation of biochemical markers
Point-of-Care testing) with the quantitative estimation of the same markers in the
diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Design: Case-series study.
Setting: This study was carried out in coronary care unit in Ibn- Sena Teaching
Hospital in Mosul city from January to November, 2008.
Participant: Sixty five patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) presented with
chest pain.
Main outcome measures: Three cardiac markers (Creatine kinase (CK-MB)
activities (marker of necrosis), myoglobin (marker of muscle injury), and troponin I
(marker of necrosis), were estimated qualitatively (near the patient= Point-of-Care
testing), and quantitatively, and the results were compared. Kappa test was used for
the association between the quantitative and qualitative test results.
Results: The case-series study showed correlation of attributes between qualitative
estimation results of troponin I, myoglobin and CK-MB and quantitative estimation
results of the same parameters in (88.9%) tests.
Conclusion: The early diagnosis of ACS might be facilitated by the use of qualitative
point-of-care testing based on CK-MB, troponin I and myoglobin tests.

Effects of glibenclamide and metformin on serum uric acid level in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

Najlaa Saadi Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 69-74
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49595

Objectives: To assess the effect of glibenclamide and metformin on serum uric acid level in
patients with type ٢ diabetes.
Study design: Case control study.
Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted from March ٢٠٠٩ to January ٢٠١٠.
Fasting blood sugar and serum uric acid level were measured in patients suffering from type-
٢ diabetes mellitus who were referred to Al-Wafa Diabetic Center in Mosul City. Group ١: ٣٢
patients on glibenclamide therapy, group ٢: ٤٢ patients on metformin therapy and group ٣: ٤٢
patients on combination therapy, group ٤: ٣٢ patients on restricted diet, and ٢٣ apparently
healthy volunteers, were taken as a control group.
Results: The study showed a significant increase in the serum uric acid level of the diabetic
patients as compared with the control. Glibenclamide and/or metformin showed no significant
difference in the serum uric acid level in patients with type ٢ diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion: Glibenclamide and/or metformin had no significant effect on serum uric acid
level in patients with type ٢ diabetes mellitus.

Green synthesis of Schiff bases: a review study

Ahmed A. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2021, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 180-193
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2022.170406

Objectives: Green chemistry is the field that implies instruments and procedures, by which it offers significant environmental and financial benefits above traditional synthetic methods. The modern attention in green chemistry has pretended an additional need for organic synthesis in which different reaction environments must locate, which decreases the use of toxic organic solvents or toxic chemicals.
These green methods must enhance the selectivity, shorten reaction time, and make the products isolation simpler than the ordinary routes. In the 19th century, Hugo Schiff recorded the first synthesis of Schiff bases (imines). A Schiff base is considered as an aldehyde with a C=N group (azomethine group) in steed of the C=O group, It is normally produced by condensation of primary amines with aldehydes. Schiff bases entertain many important biologically and pharmaceutical activities and they are distinguished for their pharmacological action and wide-range applications in the food industry.
This study tries to focus on the green synthetic methods used for Schiff bases synthesis, in order to find the best technique that offers higher yields in shorter time within eco-friendly environment.
Conclusions: The review considered many green synthetics techniques, from which the microwaves irradiation method is considered to be the best followed by the ultrasonic, natural acids utilizing and grinding methods.

Design and formulation of piroxicam tablets

Shaimaa Dhia M.S. Al-Shakarchi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2008, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 18-24
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2008.50090

Piroxicam is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a long half-life that permits once daily dose. It exerts a better toleration than other NSAID's with a relatively low incidence of adverse effects. In this study many trials were made to formulate piroxicam as plain tablets with properties comparable to those of capsules and in agreement with pharmacopoeial standards. Different formulas were prepared by the application of direct compression method and wet granulation method with the addition of different excipients. The wet granulation method used in the preparation of piroxicam tablets was modified to improve the properties of the produced tablets. The characteristics of the prepared formulas were tested and the results showed that formula D prepared by wet granulation method, containing PVP as binder and lactose as diluent is the most appropriate formula with a rapid disintegration time and complete dissolution as that of piroxicam capsules.
Accordingly, formula D was chosen to be a promising formula of piroxicam plain tablet that could be manufactured as a mass product.

Quality of different brands of metronidazole available in jimma town, south west Ethiopia; A cross- sectional pharmaceutical quality study

Teshome Sosengo; Tesfaye Mohammed; Ramanjireddy Tatiparthi

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2020, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2020.167595

Background: WHO report of 2017 estimates that the rates of substandard and falsified medical products in low- and middle-income countries is approximately 10.5% with an estimated spend of US$ 30.5 billion.
Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of different brands of metronidazole available in Jimma town, Oromia region, South West Ethiopia.
Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma town, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The study was conducted from May 03 – July 30, 2018. Samples were collected using convenience sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using methods specified in British Pharmacopoeia 2013 and United States Pharmacopoeia 2015.
Results: All the seven brands of Metronidazole analyzed for quality passed identity test specification of BP 2013. The three brands of Metronidazole capsules passed weight uniformity and dissolution test specification of USP 2015. The seven brands of Metronidazole passed assay (i.e. drug content) test specification of USP 2015. The highest percentage of drug content, 107.81% and 105.56%, obtained for Metronidazole (generic)(capsule) and Nirmet(injection) respectively. However, statistical comparison of assay of respective brands of the respective
dosage forms at 95% confidence interval indicates that there exists significant difference in assay within and among the brands of the respective dosage forms (p<0.05). All the four brands of Metronidazole injections passed USP 2015 limit for Endotoxin, Endotoxin limit ˂0.35Eu/ml. Two brands of Metronidazole injection, Aldezol and Metris, failed sterility test from the four brands of Metronidazole injections included in the study and hence of poor quality.

Comparison between quantitative and qualitative biochemical markers in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

Akram J Ahmad; Samir B Al-Mukhtar

Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 102-110
DOI: 10.33899/iphr.2011.49916

Objectives: To compare between the qualitative estimation of biochemical markers
Point-of-Care testing) with the quantitative estimation of the same markers in the
diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Design: Case-series study.
Setting: This study was carried out in coronary care unit in Ibn- Sena Teaching
Hospital in Mosul city from January to November, 2008.
Participant: Sixty five patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) presented with
chest pain.
Main outcome measures: Three cardiac markers (Creatine kinase (CK-MB)
activities (marker of necrosis), myoglobin (marker of muscle injury), and troponin I
(marker of necrosis), were estimated qualitatively (near the patient= Point-of-Care
testing), and quantitatively, and the results were compared. Kappa test was used for
the association between the quantitative and qualitative test results.
Results: The case-series study showed correlation of attributes between qualitative
estimation results of troponin I, myoglobin and CK-MB and quantitative estimation
results of the same parameters in (88.9%) tests.
Conclusion: The early diagnosis of ACS might be facilitated by the use of qualitative
point-of-care testing based on CK-MB, troponin I and myoglobin tests.

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  m.j.pharmacy@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Yasser Fakri Mustafa

Managing Editor: Ass. Prof. Dr. Zeina Abdul mnium Abdul majeed

Print ISSN: 1680-2594

Online ISSN: 2664-2522

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Publication in the Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy is free when a non-Iraqi author submits an article via official email, regardless of whether the list of authors includes Iraqi researchers. 

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