The Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy (Iraqi J. Pharm.) is an open-access journal of pharmacy and medicine published by the College of Pharmacy at the University of Mosul. The first issue was published in 2001. There were 24 issues published from that time to the present, and since 2005, it has been available online in PDF and HTML. Iraqi J. Pharm. required a fee for publishing an accepted manuscript since the journal is not financially supported by governmental or non-governmental organizations. Iraqi J. Pharm. is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 international license and provides a DOI number for each published article. From the begining of 2024, the journal will publish 4 issues at the first days of the March, June, September, and December.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Synthesis and Pharmacological Profiles of 6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin and Its Derivatives: A Concise Review

Nameer Mazin Zeki; Yasser Fakri Mustafa

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 174-188

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.143017.1059

Abstract
  Background: Esculetin, scientifically referred to as 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, functions as the primary bioactive constituent found in Cortex Fraxini (commonly known as ash bark), an ancient Asian medicinal substance. Herbal practitioners utilize the outer layer of the branch or stem bark of Cortex Fraxini ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Statin Gastroprotective Mechanisms Independent of Gastric Acid Suppression

Dilgash A Abdullah; Hani Almukhtar

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 189-194

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.142864.1056

Abstract
  Background: Statins have demonstrated various beneficial clinical outcomes, not only in patients with elevated cholesterol levels but also in those with normal levels, a collective phenomenon known as pleiotropic effects. In the cardiovascular system, statins exhibit numerous pleiotropic effects, including ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Mirabegron-Induced Smooth Muscle Relaxation: Review of the Suggested Mechanisms

Rahma Saadaldain Almallah; Hani Almukhtar

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 195-200

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.142851.1057

Abstract
  Background: Mirabegron operates through a distinct mechanism compared to antimuscarinic agents. Its activation of β3-adrenoceptors results in the relaxation of the bladder during the filling phase of micturition. The activation of β3-adrenoceptors, which are connected to Gs-proteins, is hypothesized ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Systemic Adverse Effects of Topical Clobetasol and Counterfeit Cosmetic Products on Iraqi Women

Teeba H. Sagban; Ausama Ayob Jaccob; Abdulla Ayob Yaqoub; Huda Khadim

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 201-209

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.143457.1061

Abstract
  Background: Topical corticosteroids (TCs) are widely used for dermatologic diseases. Unfortunately, there exists many adverse effects (local and systemic). These adverse effects are comparable to those observed when glucocorticoids are administered systemically, but they are typically less severe. Aim: ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
The Effect of Cilnidipine on Insulin Sensitivity

Maha Abdalwahab Mahmood; Shatha Hani Mohammad

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 210-216

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.143299.1060

Abstract
  Background: Cilnidipine, a common hypertension medication, is now being studied for its potential to improve insulin sensitivity, which plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels. Recent research suggests that cilnidipine may benefit individuals with both hypertension and insulin resistance, offering ...  Read More ...

Pharmacognosy & Natural Products
Evaluation of Various In-vitro Biological Activities of Crude Quince Seed Ethanolic Extract

Raghad Riyadh Khalil

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 217-223

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.144158.1063

Abstract
  Background: for a long time, natural bio-actives have been used to treat, cure, and prevent illnesses. Fruit seed crude extracts have been found to have various beneficial biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumoral potential. Methods: this study investigated quince ...  Read More ...

Pharmacognosy & Natural Products
Exploring the Antimicrobial Activity of Quince Seeds Extracted by Two Different Methods

Eman Tareq Mohammed

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 224-235

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.144159.1064

Abstract
  Background: The rise of resistance to numerous effective antimicrobic drugs and the necessity to investigate alternative agents to address this emerge are conspicuously underscored. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the TPC (total phenolic contents), TFC (total flavonoidal contents), and the antimicrobial ...  Read More ...

Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Thermosonication-Catalyzed Synthesis of New 3-Esterified Coumarins as Biocompatible Antitumor Candidates

Sawsan Hasan Hammodi

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 236-242

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.144182.1066

Abstract
  Background: Coumarin chemical moiety and its-based molecules attracted a lot of research attention by chemists of natural products and organic synthesis. This attention works in two directions: synthetic approaches and biological activities. Methods: In this work, salicylaldehyde was condensed via a ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Histological and Morphometric Effect of Amiodarone on the Ovary in Adult Female Albino Rats

Zahraa Abd-Alkader Tabou

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 243-249

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.144294.1067

Abstract
  Background and objectives: Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat abnormal heart rhythms. This study aimed to analyse the histological variations in ovarian follicles of rats after treatment with different doses of amiodarone and evaluate its effects on follicular growth parameters. ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Adipokines: The Role of Visfatin and Apelin in Cardiovascular Disease Management

Yaseen Khamees Jumaah; Zainab Haitham Fathi; Jehan Abdulwahab Mohammad

Volume 20, Supplementary Issue 1 , December 2023, Page 250-260

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.143923.1062

Abstract
  Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors are medications pivotal in cardiovascular disease management, impacting the renin-angiotensin system which plays a critical role in cardiovascular health. These inhibitors not only modulate blood pressure and fluid balance but also influence ...  Read More ...

Drug Abuse as a Contemporary Social Problem

Zena S. Hamed

Volume 18, Issue 2 , December 2021, , Page 194-202

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170407

Abstract
  Objective: Drug abuse and its repercussions are of the most serious problems in society nowadays. This is because of their enormous influence on the individual, the family, and its social effects like crime, social marginalization, and death from overdose or suicide, as well as on the economy.The latest ...  Read More ...

The effect of metformin on some liver function tests in type 2 diabetic patients

Islam T.Q. AI-Mola; Faris A. Ahmed

Volume 6, Issue 1 , December 2006, , Page 25-27

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2006.50554

Abstract
  Objectives: To study the effect of metformin on serum glucose and some liver function tests including serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin in type 2 diabetic patients. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study ...  Read More ...

The Efficacy of Azelaic Acid 20% Cream in the Treatment of Scalp Alopecia Areata

Mudheher I. Salih; Dindar S. Qurtas

Volume 19, Issue 1 , July 2022, , Page 23-33

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174798

Abstract
  Introduction: Alopecia areata is a common, inflammatory, non-scarring type of hair loss that affects persons of both sexes and all age groups, with prevalence in the general population of approximately 0.1–0.2%. It is characterized by variable clinical presentations, ranging from single or multiple ...  Read More ...

Effect of melatonin on oxidative stress markers in patients with alopecia areata

AL- Gaff AN; Humadi S; Wohaieb S.A

Volume 5, Issue 1 , December 2005, , Page 33-39

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2005.50259

Abstract
  Alopecia areata is an autoimmune, nonscarring, multifocal disorder of hair growth characterized by circular bald areas, which occur on any hair bearing site of the body. The exact cause of alopecia areata is unknown. Recent study reported a potential role of oxygen free radicals (OFR) in pathogenesis ...  Read More ...

Quality of different brands of metronidazole available in jimma town, south west Ethiopia; A cross- sectional pharmaceutical quality study

Teshome Sosengo; Tesfaye Mohammed; Ramanjireddy Tatiparthi

Volume 17, Issue 1 , January 2020, , Page 1-18

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2020.167595

Abstract
  Background: WHO report of 2017 estimates that the rates of substandard and falsified medical products in low- and middle-income countries is approximately 10.5% with an estimated spend of US$ 30.5 billion.Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of different brands of metronidazole ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Mechanisms and Linkage of Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and Inflammation

khalil Amjad Hadid; Fawaz A. Alassaf; Mohammed Najim Abed

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 22 December 2023

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2023.144181.1065

Abstract
  Background: Chronic inflammation is responsible for low insulin sensitivity, making obesity a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines activates several signaling pathways, consequently leading ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Evaluation of the Expression of Immunohistochemical Staining of PDL1 in Renal Cell Cancer

Rihab Mohammed Edress Al-Nuaimy; Nadwa SM. Al-Azzo

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 January 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2024.145039.1071

Abstract
  Background and objectives: To evade anti-tumour responses, tumour cells expressed programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), which play a role in suppressing the adaptive arm of immune systems. It has been disputed, meanwhile, whether PDL1 expression in Renal cell cancer (RCC) has any predictive value. Anti-PDL1 ...  Read More ...

Clinical biological Labs
Evaluate the Fluctuation in the Level of PTH, and Assess the Relationship Between PTH and Some Biochemical Parameter in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

Zahraa H. Alsarraf; Nahla A. Saber

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 10 February 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.145254.1076

Abstract
  Background: As a key regulator of bone metabolism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) also modulates the homeostatic response to changes in plasma calcium concentrations. PTH values are often used in patients with “chronic kidney disease (CKD)” as a surrogate for assessing bone and mineral disease ...  Read More ...

Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Comprehensive View on Drugs-Induced Cardiotoxicity and Its Prevention

Abdulnaser Ahmad Ali; Musab Mohammed Khalaf; Abdulla A. Ahmad

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 04 February 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2024.145016.1070

Abstract
  Background: The prevention of drug-induced cardiotoxicity is a complicated challenge facing healthcare providers during the last few decades. This challenge is raised from the unclear definition of the term “cardiotoxicity”, the overlapping of the symptoms of heart dysfunction due to the ...  Read More ...

Clinical Pharmacy
Smoking Behaviors and Related Factors Among Secondary School Students in Duhok City

Alaa Noori Sarkees; Sardar Abdullah Issa

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 18 February 2024

https://doi.org/10.33899/iraqij.p.2024.145584.1077

Abstract
  Background: The use of tobacco products among adolescents is a global health concern with reduced available information about the driving cause enhancing smoking in school-age adolescents and the synchronised role of friends, school, and parents in initiating the adolescent quitting. Aim: This study ...  Read More ...

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